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JKM > Volume 42(3); 2021 > Article
Cha, Kim, Sung, Lee, Choi, Kim, Lee, Jeon, and Kim: Statistical Analysis of Outpatients Trends at Korean Medicine Hospitals of Daejeon University by Region before and after COVID-19

Abstract

Objectives

This study is designed to statistically analyze data of outpatients visiting for recent 3 years. The purpose is to identify tendencies of patients who visit the hospitals before and after COVID-19.

Methods

This study retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 452,487 patients who visited to the Daejeon·Cheonan·Cheongju Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University from January 1, 2018 to August 31, 2020. The data is classified according to year, month, gender, age, and visit type. The statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 25.0.

Results

The total number of patients decreased in 2020 compared to before 2020, and the number of patients in each hospital also decreased from the previous year. According to the year of each hospital, the difference by year was not statistically significant at Daejeon Hospital, but Cheonan and Cheongju Hospital showed statistical difference. The change in monthly according to the year by hospital has continued to decrease from January to March in 2020, unlike the previous year, which recovered from a decline in March. In the analysis of patients by age, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of patients in the above 60s according to the year, while those under 60s have a tendency to significantly decrease..

Conclusion

We expect that the results of this study will be used as reference materials in analyzing effects of COVID-19 at health care utilization.

Fig. 1
The change of total number of patients by year
※ Before 2020: Average of 2018 and 2019
jkm-42-3-26f1.gif
Fig. 2
The change of number of patients by month
jkm-42-3-26f2.gif
Fig. 3
The change of sex ratio by hospital
jkm-42-3-26f3.gif
Fig. 4
The change of age ratio by hospital
jkm-42-3-26f4.gif
Table 1
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Number of Patients by Year, Month, Sex, Age, and Visit Type
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. F(p) R2

B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) −202.073 22.564 −8.956 0.000 115.561 *** 0.232
year −21.706 8.798 −0.049 −2.467 0.014
month 3.899 1.920 0.041 2.031 0.042
sex 31.742 8.798 0.072 3.608 0.000
age −2.007 1.531 −0.026 −1.310 0.190
visit type 206.861 8.798 0.471 23.513 0.000

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 2
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Number of Patients by Year, Month, Sex, Age, and Visit Type according to Hospital
hospital Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. F(p) R2

B Std. Error Beta
Daejeon (Constant) −405.498 48.527 −8.356 0.000 63.512 *** 0.334
year −8.731 18.921 −0.015 −0.461 0.645
month 7.608 4.129 0.060 1.843 0.066
sex 79.097 18.921 0.136 4.180 0.000
age 0.084 3.294 0.001 0.025 0.980
visit type 325.784 18.921 0.558 17.218 0.000

Cheonan (Constant) −125.963 33.083 −3.807 0.000 57.119 *** 0.311
year −40.189 12.899 −0.103 −3.116 0.002
month 2.907 2.815 0.034 1.033 0.302
sex 8.598 12.899 0.022 0.667 0.505
age −7.446 2.245 −0.109 −3.316 0.001
visit type 209.342 12.899 0.535 16.229 0.000

Cheongju (Constant) −74.759 15.480 −4.829 0.000 42.336 *** 0.250
year −16.198 6.036 −0.092 −2.684 0.007
month 1.184 1.317 0.031 0.899 0.369
sex 7.530 6.036 0.043 1.248 0.213
age 1.342 1.051 0.044 1.277 0.202
visit type 85.458 6.036 0.487 14.159 0.000

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 3
Cross Tabulation of Hospital and Year for Number of Patients
year Total χ2

Before 2020 2020
hospital Daejeon Count 75660 72866 148526 811.682 ***
% 50.9% 49.1% 100.0%

Cheonan Count 57768 44907 102675
% 56.3% 43.7% 100.0%

Cheongju Count 24348 19164 43512
% 56.0% 44.0% 100.0%

Total Count 157776 136937 294713
% 53.5% 46.5% 100.0%

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001,

※ Before 2020: Average of 2018 and 2019

Table 4
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Number of Patients by Month, Sex, Age, and Visit Type according to Hospital and Year
hospital Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. F(p) R2

B Std. Error Beta
Daejeon Before 2020 (Constant) −441.149 68.945 −6.399 0.000 39.779 *** 0.336
month 10.299 5.981 0.079 1.722 0.086
sex 90.669 27.408 0.152 3.308 0.001
age −0.037 4.771 0.000 −0.008 0.994
visit type 330.269 27.408 0.553 12.050 0.000

2020 (Constant) −378.578 65.978 −5.738 0.000 39.358 *** 0.333
month 4.917 5.724 0.040 0.859 0.391
sex 67.525 26.228 0.118 2.575 0.010
age 0.205 4.566 0.002 0.045 0.964
visit type 321.300 26.228 0.564 12.250 0.000

Cheonan Before 2020 (Constant) −159.558 50.997 −3.129 0.002 34.959 *** 0.307
month 4.384 4.424 0.046 0.991 0.322
sex 9.966 20.273 0.023 0.492 0.623
age −9.558 3.529 −0.127 −2.709 0.007
visit type 232.278 20.273 0.537 11.458 0.000

2020 (Constant) −132.557 40.108 −3.305 0.001 35.187 *** 0.309
month 1.429 3.479 0.019 0.411 0.681
sex 7.231 15.944 0.021 0.454 0.650
age −5.333 2.776 −0.090 −1.921 0.056
visit type 186.406 15.944 0.548 11.691 0.000

Cheongju Before 2020 (Constant) −89.401 23.251 −3.845 0.000 27.525 *** 0.259
month 0.233 2.017 0.006 0.115 0.908
sex 11.909 9.243 0.062 1.288 0.199
age 0.505 1.609 0.015 0.314 0.754
visit type 96.203 9.243 0.505 10.408 0.000

2020 (Constant) −76.314 19.498 −3.914 0.000 24.319 *** 0.236
month 2.135 1.691 0.062 1.262 0.208
sex 3.150 7.751 0.020 0.406 0.685
age 2.178 1.349 0.080 1.614 0.107
visit type 74.713 7.751 0.475 9.639 0.000

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 5
Cross Tabulation of Year and Month for Number of Patients according to Hospital
hospital month Total χ2

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
Daejeon year Before 2020 Count 9164 7590 8569 8880 9424 10009 11170 10856 75662 172.191 ***
% 12.1% 10.0% 11.3% 11.7% 12.5% 13.2% 14.8% 14.3% 100.0%

2020 Count 9574 8265 7750 8391 9446 9719 10073 9648 72866
% 13.1% 11.3% 10.6% 11.5% 13.0% 13.3% 13.8% 13.2% 100.0%

Total Count 18738 15855 16319 17271 18870 19728 21243 20504 148528
% 12.6% 10.7% 11.0% 11.6% 12.7% 13.3% 14.3% 13.8% 100.0%

Cheonan year Before 2020 Count 7133 6099 7088 7146 7464 6982 7927 7931 57770 418.728 ***
% 12.3% 10.6% 12.3% 12.4% 12.9% 12.1% 13.7% 13.7% 100.0%

2020 Count 6498 5329 4218 5083 5788 6117 6293 5581 44907
% 14.5% 11.9% 9.4% 11.3% 12.9% 13.6% 14.0% 12.4% 100.0%

Total Count 13631 11428 11306 12229 13252 13099 14220 13512 102677
% 13.3% 11.1% 11.0% 11.9% 12.9% 12.8% 13.8% 13.2% 100.0%

Cheongju year Before 2020 Count 3316 2839 2896 2853 3226 2903 3207 3109 24349 98.522 ***
% 13.6% 11.7% 11.9% 11.7% 13.2% 11.9% 13.2% 12.8% 100.0%

2020 Count 2426 1982 1982 2227 2563 2620 2867 2497 19164
% 12.7% 10.3% 10.3% 11.6% 13.4% 13.7% 15.0% 13.0% 100.0%

Total Count 5742 4821 4878 5080 5789 5523 6074 5606 43513
% 13.2% 11.1% 11.2% 11.7% 13.3% 12.7% 14.0% 12.9% 100.0%

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 6
Cross Tabulation of Year and Sex for Number of Patients according to Hospital
sex Total χ2

Male Female
Daejeon year Before 2020 Count 30577 45084 75661 72.221 ***
% 40.4% 59.6% 100.0%

2020 Count 31031 41835 72866
% 42.6% 57.4% 100.0%

Total Count 61608 86919 148527
% 41.5% 58.5% 100.0%

Cheonan year Before 2020 Count 28087 29681 57768 0.085
% 48.6% 51.4% 100.0%

2020 Count 21875 23032 44907
% 48.7% 51.3% 100.0%

Total Count 49962 52713 102675
% 48.7% 51.3% 100.0%

Cheongju year Before 2020 Count 11221 13127 24348 29.066 ***
% 46.1% 53.9% 100.0%

2020 Count 9330 9834 19164
% 48.7% 51.3% 100.0%

Total Count 20551 22961 43512
% 47.2% 52.8% 100.0%

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 7
Cross Tabulation of Year and Age for Number of Patients according to Hospital
age Total χ2

< 10s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s ≥ 90s
Daejeon year Before 2020 Count 1726 2854 6623 9371 13585 18507 14111 6609 2127 150 75663 145.512 ***
% 2.3% 3.8% 8.8% 12.4% 18.0% 24.5% 18.6% 8.7% 2.8% 0.2% 100.0%

2020 Count 1804 2975 5887 9067 12438 17759 14857 5913 2086 80 72866
% 2.5% 4.1% 8.1% 12.4% 17.1% 24.4% 20.4% 8.1% 2.9% 0.1% 100.0%

Total Count 3530 5829 12510 18438 26023 36266 28968 12522 4213 230 148529
% 2.4% 3.9% 8.4% 12.4% 17.5% 24.4% 19.5% 8.4% 2.8% 0.2% 100.0%

Cheonan year Before 2020 Count 1622 1807 6566 11815 11764 12900 7509 2694 953 139 57769 356.929 ***
% 2.8% 3.1% 11.4% 20.5% 20.4% 22.3% 13.0% 4.7% 1.6% 0.2% 100.0%

2020 Count 1109 1589 4924 7736 8682 10784 6918 2176 931 58 44907
% 2.5% 3.5% 11.0% 17.2% 19.3% 24.0% 15.4% 4.8% 2.1% 0.1% 100.0%

Total Count 2731 3396 11490 19551 20446 23684 14427 4870 1884 197 102676
% 2.7% 3.3% 11.2% 19.0% 19.9% 23.1% 14.1% 4.7% 1.8% 0.2% 100.0%

Cheongju year Before 2020 Count 344 835 1727 2882 5078 6586 4303 1875 693 27 24350 302.063 ***
% 1.4% 3.4% 7.1% 11.8% 20.9% 27.0% 17.7% 7.7% 2.8% 0.1% 100.0%

2020 Count 176 422 1142 1824 3872 5552 3395 2076 684 21 19164
% 0.9% 2.2% 6.0% 9.5% 20.2% 29.0% 17.7% 10.8% 3.6% 0.1% 100.0%

Total Count 520 1257 2869 4706 8950 12138 7698 3951 1377 48 43514
% 1.2% 2.9% 6.6% 10.8% 20.6% 27.9% 17.7% 9.1% 3.2% 0.1% 100.0%

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 8
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Number of Patients by Year, Month, Sex, and Visit Type in the Two Groups of Under 60s and Above 60s
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. F(p) R2

B Std. Error Beta
< 60s (Constant) −1406.555 224.201 −6.274 0.000 66.941 *** 0.589
year −196.307 91.803 −0.100 −2.138 0.034
month 24.793 20.033 0.058 1.238 0.217
sex 201.724 91.803 0.103 2.197 0.029
visit type 1471.234 91.803 0.752 16.026 0.000

≥ 60s (Constant) −706.531 104.306 −6.774 0.000 51.804 *** 0.527
year −24.860 42.820 −0.029 −0.581 0.562
month 15.569 9.377 0.084 1.660 0.099
sex 111.588 42.820 0.131 2.606 0.010
visit type 601.485 42.820 0.708 14.047 0.000

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 9
Cross Tabulation of the Two Groups of Under 60s and Above 60s by Year for Number of Patients
year Total χ2

Before 2020 2020
age < 60s Count 116588 97742 214330 264.983 ***
% 54.4% 45.6% 100.0%

≥ 60s Count 40849 39195 80044
% 51.0% 49.0% 100.0%

Total Count 157437 136937 294374
% 53.5% 46.5% 100.0%

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 10
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Number of Patients by Year, Month, Sex, and Visit Type by Hospital in the Two Groups of Under 60s and Above 60s
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. F(p) R2

B Std. Error Beta
Daejeon < 60s (Constant) −2683.190 177.696 −15.100 0.000 245.038 *** 0.943
year −85.438 72.761 −0.036 −1.174 0.245
month 44.914 15.878 0.088 2.829 0.006
sex 552.563 72.761 0.236 7.594 0.000
visit type 2198.656 72.761 0.937 30.218 0.000

≥ 60s (Constant) −1368.016 80.834 −16.924 0.000 273.635 *** 0.949
year −1.875 33.099 −0.002 −0.057 0.955
month 31.167 7.223 0.127 4.315 0.000
sex 238.406 33.099 0.212 7.203 0.000
visit type 1059.188 33.099 0.942 32.001 0.000

Cheonan < 60s (Constant) −1112.203 113.619 −9.789 0.000 322.497 *** 0.956
year −364.031 46.523 −0.213 −7.825 0.000
month 22.906 10.152 0.061 2.256 0.028
sex 13.563 46.523 0.008 0.292 0.772
visit type 1627.375 46.523 0.952 34.980 0.000

≥ 60s (Constant) −482.477 38.894 −12.405 0.000 221.455 *** 0.938
year −37.859 15.926 −0.077 −2.377 0.021
month 6.161 3.475 0.058 1.773 0.081
sex 72.422 15.926 0.148 4.547 0.000
visit type 466.047 15.926 0.952 29.263 0.000

Cheongju < 60s (Constant) −424.271 50.440 −8.411 0.000 215.221 *** 0.936
year −139.453 20.654 −0.223 −6.752 0.000
month 6.560 4.507 0.048 1.456 0.151
sex 39.047 20.654 0.062 1.891 0.064
visit type 587.672 20.654 0.938 28.454 0.000

≥ 60s (Constant) −263.130 21.631 −12.164 0.000 231.224 *** 0.941
year −22.907 8.931 −0.082 −2.565 0.013
month 5.400 1.971 0.087 2.740 0.008
sex 35.875 8.931 0.128 4.017 0.000
visit type 267.282 8.931 0.955 29.929 0.000

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

Table 11
Cross Tabulation of the Two Groups of Under 60s and Above 60s by Year for Number of Patients according to Hospital
year Total χ2

Before 2020 2020
Daejeon age < 60s Count 52664 49930 102594 20.384 ***
% 51.3% 48.7% 100.0%

≥ 60s Count 22996 22936 45932
% 50.1% 49.9% 100.0%

Total Count 75660 72866 148526
% 50.9% 49.1% 100.0%

Cheonan age < 60s Count 46473 34824 81297 128.955 ***
% 57.2% 42.8% 100.0%

≥ 60s Count 11295 10083 21378
% 52.8% 47.2% 100.0%

Total Count 57768 44907 102675
% 56.3% 43.7% 100.0%

Cheongju age < 60s Count 17451 12988 30439 123.513 ***
% 57.3% 42.7% 100.0%

≥ 60s Count 6559 6176 12735
% 51.5% 48.5% 100.0%

Total Count 24010 19164 43174
% 55.6% 44.4% 100.0%

* p<0.1,

** p<0.05,

*** p<0.001

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