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JKM > Volume 42(1); 2021 > Article
Kim, Kim, and Kim: Retrospective Statistical Analysis on Patients Admitted to a Korean Medicine Hospital by Traffic Accident

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of patients who were admitted to an oriental medicine hospital by traffic accident.

Methods

The medical charts of 346 patients admitted to an oriental medicine hospital from June 1, 2017 to May 31, 2018 were analyzed. The Numbering Rating Scale (NRS) and duration of hospitalization were used to evaluate characteristics of the patients.

Results

Acupuncture, Moxibustion, Infralux were used to treat all the patients. The most frequently used herbal medication was Danggwisu-san(22.25%). 87 patients(25.14%) visited the outpatient department after being discharged from the hospital. The most frequent complaint in terms of pain was cervical pain(82.7%) and of systemic symptom was headache(23.7%). Men and younger aged patients showed higher therapeutic effect than women and older ages. The most common duration of hospitalization was 2~4 days(42.73%) and positively correlated with therapeutic effect. The most frequent interval between time of injury and visit to the hospital was from 0–1 days(68.90%) and showed no relationship with therapeutic effect. The most frequent admission pathway was “Directly to the hospital”(57.51%). Admission pathway was proportionally associated with duration of hospitalization and treatment results were not. The most common vehicle type involved in the traffic accidents was a sedan(72.25%), accident type was a rear-end collision(43.64%) and showed no relationship with therapeutic effect.

Conclusions

In this study, therapeutic effects were highly correlated among men, younger ages, and duration of hospital stay, and was not for interval days, admission pathway, vehicle type, and accident type.

Table 1
Distribution of Korean Medicine Treatment
Korean Medicine Treatment No(%)
Acupuncture 346(100%)
Moxibustion 346(100%)
Infralux 346(100%)
Electroacupuncture 345(99.71%)
Cupping therapy 345(99.71%)
Blood-letting cupping therapy 345(99.71%)
Anti-inflammatory and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture 345(99.71%)
ICT(Interferential Current Therapy) 331(95.66%)
Microwave 331(95.66%)
Hot pack 330(95.38%)
Chuna therapy 101(29.19%)

Total 346(100%)

Patients could attend multiple treatments

Table 2
Distribution of Herbal Medication
Herb-med No(%)
當歸鬚散 77(22.25%)
回首散 加減方 53(15.31%)
芍藥甘草湯加味 31(8.96%)
加味溫膽湯 26(7.51%)
安神除痛湯 18(5.20%)
活絡湯 加減方 13(3.76%)
半夏白朮天麻湯 12(3.47%)
獨活續斷湯 加減方 10(2.89%)
回首散加味 10(2.89%)
淸上蠲痛湯 7(2.02%)
烏藥順氣散 加減方 5(1.45%)
平陳健脾湯 5(1.45%)
利腰飮加減 4(1.16%)
淸上湯 4(1.16%)
活絡湯 4(1.16%)
葛根湯 3(0.87%)
安神湯 3(0.87%)
溫下除痛湯 3(0.87%)
雙和湯 加減方 3(0.87%)
通中除痛湯 3(0.87%)
桂枝湯 2(0.58%)
當歸鬚散合淸上蠲痛湯 2(0.58%)
順氣除痛湯 2(0.58%)
養胃湯 2(0.58%)
Others 36(10.40%)
None 8(2.31%)

Total 346(100%)
Table 3
Distribution of Visiting to Outpatient Department after Being Discharged from the Hospital
Visit to Outpatient Department after Being Discharged from the hospital No(%)
Yes 87(25.14%)
No 259(74.86%)

Total 346(100%)
Table 4
Distribution of Chief Complaints in Terms of Pain Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days
Chief complaints (pain) No(%) Admission Discharge (Admission)-(Discharge) p-value
MD SD MD SD MD SD
Neck pain 286 (82.7%) 5.69 1.32 3.83 1.65 1.87 1.56 0.000*
Low back pain 256 (74.0%) 5.69 1.37 4.11 1.76 1.58 1.45 0.000*
Shoulder pain 218 (63.0%) 5.64 1.31 3.85 1.63 1.79 1.58 0.000*
Thoracic & Abdomen pain 43 (12.4%) 5.84 1.45 3.77 2.02 2.07 1.84 0.000*
Knee pain 41 (11.8%) 5.20 1.23 3.12 2.10 2.07 1.57 0.000*
Lower extremity pain 28 (8.1%) 5.39 1.31 3.61 1.93 1.79 1.81 0.000*
Ankle pain 24 (6.9%) 5.38 1.13 3.63 1.88 1.75 2.09 0.000*
Wrist pain 23 (6.6%) 4.70 1.36 3.22 1.59 1.48 1.81 0.000*
Upper extremity pain 17 (4.9%) 5.77 1.15 3.35 1.69 2.41 1.73 0.000*
Elbow pain 8 (2.3%) 5.38 1.51 3.50 2.39 1.88 1.73 0.018*
Hand pain 3 (0.9%) 5.33 0.58 2.33 2.52 3.00 3.00 0.225
TMJ pain 2 (0.6%) 5.50 2.12 2.50 2.12 3.00 4.24 0.5000

TMJ: Temporo-mandibular joint

* Significant mean differences by t-test (p<0.05)

Table 5
Distribution of Chief Complaints in Terms of Systemic Symptoms Induced by Traffic Accidents
Chief Complaints (Systemic Symptoms) Sex X O (p-value)
Headache Male 162(82.7%) 34(17.3%) 10.089 (0.002*)
Female 102(68.0%) 48(32.0%)

Total 264(76.3%) 82(23.7%)

Nausea Male 175(89.3%) 21(10.7%) 8.217 (0.005*)
Female 117(78.0%) 33(22.0%)
Total 292(84.4%) 54(15.6%)

Palpitation Male 187(95.4%) 9(4.6%) 28.289 (0.000*)
Female 114(76.0%) 36(24.0%)

Total 301(87.0%) 45(13.0%)

Dizziness Male 179(91.3%) 17(8.7%) 0.050 (0.848)
Female 138(92.0%) 12(8.0%)

Total 317(91.6%) 29(8.4%)

* Significant mean differences by –test (p<0.05)

Table 6
Distribution of Age and sex
Age Male(%) Female(%) Total(%)
10~19 4(1.2%) 4(1.2%) 8(2.3%)
20~29 40(11.6%) 31(9.0%) 71(20.5%)
30~39 38(11.0%) 22(6.4%) 60(17.3%)
40~49 44(12.7%) 40(11.6%) 84(24.3%)
50~59 38(11.0%) 28(8.1%) 66(19.1%)
60~69 27(7.8%) 21(6.1%) 48(13.9%)
70~79 5(1.4%) 4(1.2%) 9(2.6%)

Total 196(56.6%) 150(43.4%) 346(100%)
Table 7
Distribution of Sex Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days, and Duration of Hospitalization
Sex No(%) MD SD 95% Confidence t-value or F-value (p-value)

Min Max
Treatment Results M 196(56.98%) 1.77 1.31 −0.24 0.32 0.289 (0.773)
F 148(43.02%) 1.73 1.30 −0.24 0.32

Total 344(100%) 1.75 1.31 1.62 1.90

Duration of Hospitalization M 196(56.65%) 5.38 3.10 −2.00 −0.59 −3.590 (0.000*)
F 150(43.35%) 6.67 3.60 −2.02 −0.57

Total 346(100%) 5.94 3.38 5.58 6.30

* Significant mean differences by t-test or ANOVA (p<0.05)

Table 8
Distribution of Age Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days, and Duration of Hospitalization
Age Patients number MD SD 95% Confidence t-value or F-value (p-value)

Min Max
Treatment Results 10~19 8(2.03%) 2.36 1.09 1.34 3.37 0.589 (0.739)
20~29 71(20.64%) 1.77 1.32 1.46 2.08
30~39 60(17.15%) 1.62 1.37 1.26 1.98
40~49 84(24.42%) 1.75 1.26 1.48 2.03
50~59 66(19.19%) 1.91 1.32 1.59 2.23
60~69 48(13.95%) 1.63 1.36 1.23 2.02
70~79 9(2.62%) 1.67 1.13 0.80 2.54

Total 344(100%) 1.76 1.31 1.62 1.90

Duration of Hospitalization 10~19 8(2.31%) 5.63 3.02 3.10 8.15 1.892 (0.081)
20~29 71(20.52%) 5.31 2.94 4.61 6.01
30~39 60(17.34%) 5.35 3.05 4.56 6.14
40~49 84(24.28%) 6.10 3.53 5.33 6.86
50~59 66(19.08%) 6.05 3.42 5.21 6.89
60~69 48(13.87%) 7.19 3.84 6.07 8.30
70~79 9(2.60%) 6.22 3.90 3.23 9.22

Total 346(100%) 5.94 3.38 5.58 6.30

* Significant mean differences by t-test or ANOVA (p<0.05)

Table 9
Comparison of Sex and Age by Adjusted Discharge NRS Score
Treatment Results Patients number Adjusted Mean SD 95% Confidence SS III F-value (p-value)

Min Max
Sex M 196(56.98%) 3.73 0.96 3.57 3.88 9.418 7.98 (0.005*)
F 148(43.02%) 4.07 1.26 3.89 4.25

Age 10~19 8(2.03%) 2.89 1.10 2.08 3.70 18.254 2.597 (0.018*)
20~29 71(20.64%) 3.70 1.09 3.44 3.95
30~39 60(17.15%) 3.90 1.09 3.62 4.17
40~49 84(24.42%) 3.86 1.08 3.63 4.09
50~59 66(19.19%) 3.81 1.09 3.55 4.08
60~69 48(13.95%) 4.31 0.16 4.00 4.62
70~79 9(2.62%) 4.11 0.36 3.40 4.82

† SS III: Type III sum of squares

* Significant mean differences by ANCOVA (p<0.05)

Table 10
Distribution of Duration of Hospitalization Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days
Duration of Hospitalization No(%) Mean SD 95% Confidence F-value (p-value)

Min Max
2~4 147(42.73%) 1.06 1.07 0.88 1.23 35.888 (0.000*)
5~7 97(28.20%) 2.02 1.07 1.81 2.24
8~10 64(18.60%) 2.41 1.22 2.11 2.72
11~ 36(10.47%) 2.73 1.44 2.25 3.22

Total 344(100%) 1.76 1.31 1.62 1.90

* Significant mean differences by ANOVA (p<0.05)

Table 11
Post-Hoc Test by Duration of Hospitalization
Duration of Hospitalization(I) Duration of Hospitalization(J) Differences between Duration of Hospitalization (I–J) p-value 95% Confidence

Min Max
2~4 5~7 −.96462* 0.00 −1.38 −0.54
8~10 −1.35677* 0.00 −1.84 −0.88
11~ −1.67677* 0.00 −2.27 −1.08

5~7 2~4 .96462* 0.00 0.54 1.38
8~10 −0.39 0.21 −0.91 0.13
11~ −.71215* 0.02 −1.34 −0.09

8~10 2~4 1.35677* 0.00 0.88 1.84
5~7 0.39 0.21 −0.13 0.91
11~ −0.32 0.61 −0.99 0.35

11~ 2~4 1.67677* 0.00 1.08 2.27
5~7 .71215* 0.02 0.09 1.34
8~10 0.32 0.61 −0.35 0.99

* Significant mean differences by Scheffe tests (p<0.05)

Table 12
Distribution of Interval between Time of Injury and Visit to Korean Medicine Hospital Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days, and Duration of Hospitalization
Interval between Time of Injury and Visit to Hospital No(%) MD SD 95% Confidence F-value (p-value)

Min Max
Treatment Results 0~1 237(68.90%) 1.80 1.37 1.63 1.98 1.487 (0.218)
2~3 76(22.09%) 1.51 1.18 1.24 1.78
4~6 25(7.27%) 1.98 0.98 1.57 2.39
7~ 6(1.74%) 2.19 1.38 0.75 3.64

Total 344(100%) 1.76 1.31 1.62 1.90

Duration of Hospitalization 0~1 239(69.08%) 6.12 3.65 5.66 6.59 0.959 (0.412)
2~3 76(21.97%) 5.41 2.92 4.74 6.08
4~6 25(7.23%) 5.68 1.95 4.87 6.49
7~ 6(1.73%) 6.50 2.07 4.32 8.68

Total 346(100%) 5.94 3.38 5.58 6.30

* Significant mean differences by ANOVA (p<0.05)

Table 13
Distribution of Pathway to Admission Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days, and Duration of Hospitalization
Pathway to Admission No(%) MD SD 95% Confidence F-value (p-value)
Min Max
Treatment Results Directly to the Hospital 198 (57.56%) 1.66 1.35 1.47 1.84 1.458 (0.226)
Medical Hospital (OPD) 117 (34.01%) 1.85 1.25 1.62 2.08
Medical Hospital (Admission) 25 (7.27%) 1.99 1.16 1.51 2.47
Korean Medical Hostpital (OPD) 4 (1.16%) 2.63 1.25 0.64 4.61
Total 344 1.76 1.31 1.62 1.90
Duration of Hospitalization Directly to the Hospital 199 (57.51%) 5.45 3.31 4.98 5.91 3.432 (0.017*)
Medical Hospital (OPD) 118 (34.10%) 6.59 3.53 5.95 7.24
Medical Hospital (Admission) 25 (7.23%) 6.76 2.83 5.59 7.93
Korean Medical Hostpital (OPD) 4 (1.16%) 6.00 2.31 2.33 9.67
Total 346 5.94 3.38 5.58 6.30

OPD: Out Patient Department

* Significant mean differences by ANOVA (p<0.05)

Table 14
Comparison of Pathway to Admission by Adjusted Discharge NRS Score
Treatment Results by ANCOVA analysis No(%) adjusted Mean SD 95% Confidence SS III F-value (p-value)
Min Max
Pathway to Admission Directly to the Hospital 198 (57.56%) 3.89 1.11 3.73 4.04 2.890 0.798 (0.495)
Medical Hospital (OPD) 117 (34.01%) 3.90 1.11 3.70 4.10
Medical Hospital (Admission) 25 (7.27%) 3.73 1.10 3.30 4.16
Korean Medical Hostpital (OPD) 4 (1.16%) 3.13 1.10 2.04 4.21

† SS III: Type III sum of squares

OPD: Out Patient Department

* Significant mean differences by ANCOVA (p<0.05)

Table 15
Distribution of Vehicle Types Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days, and Duration of Hospitalization
Types of Vehicle No(%) MD SD 95% Confidence F-value (p-value)

Min Max
Treatment Results Sedan 248(72.09%) 1.75 1.30 1.59 1.92 0.670 (0.697)
SUV 43(12.50%) 1.49 1.34 1.08 1.90
VAN 19(5.52%) 2.04 0.78 1.67 2.42
Truck 14(4.07%) 1.93 1.71 0.94 2.92
Pedestrian 8(2.33%) 1.95 1.42 0.76 3.13
Bus 5(1.45%) 1.67 1.29 0.06 3.27
Motorbike 5(1.45%) 2.03 1.68 −0.06 4.13
Bicycle 2(0.58%) 2.83 1.18 −7.76 13.42

Total 344 1.76 1.31 1.62 1.90

Duration of Hospitalization Sedan 250(72.25%) 5.72 3.17 5.33 6.11 1.715 (0.104)
SUV 43(12.43%) 5.86 3.82 4.68 7.04
VAN 19(5.49%) 6.79 3.95 4.88 8.69
Truck 14(4.05%) 6.43 4.33 3.93 8.93
Pedestrian 8(2.31%) 7.75 2.96 5.27 10.23
Bus 5(1.45%) 9.80 3.03 6.03 13.57
Motorbike 5(1.45%) 5.60 3.36 1.43 9.77
Bicycle 2(0.58%) 7.50 6.36 −49.68 64.68

Total 346 5.94 3.38 5.58 6.30

* Significant mean differences by ANOVA (p<0.05)

Table 16
Distribution of Accident Types Based on the Differences in NRS Scores between Admission and Discharge Days, and Duration of Hospitalization
Accident Types No(%) MD SD 95% Confidence F-value (p-value)

Min Max
Treatment Results Rear-end collision 149(43.31%) 1.73 1.25 1.53 1.93 0.861 (0.570)
Left lateral collision 50(14.53%) 1.62 1.44 1.21 2.02
Frontal collision 44(12.79%) 1.57 1.37 1.16 1.99
Right lateral collsion 42(12.21%) 1.66 1.02 1.34 1.97
Multiple collsion 40(11.63%) 2.18 1.50 1.70 2.66
Pedestrian accident 8(2.33%) 1.95 1.42 0.76 3.13
Motorcycle accident 5(1.45%) 2.03 1.68 −0.06 4.13
Fall accident 2(0.58%) 1.63 0.88 −6.32 9.57
Crushing accident 2(0.58%) 2.38 0.53 −2.39 7.14
Rollover accident 1(0.29%) 3.00 - - -
Sudden stop accident 1(0.29%) 3.00 - - -

Total 344 1.76 1.31 1.62 1.90

Duration of Hospitalization Rear-end collision 151(43.64%) 5.57 3.37 5.03 6.11 0.979 (0.462)
Left lateral collision 50(14.45%) 6.02 3.46 5.04 7.00
Frontal collision 44(12.72%) 5.95 3.43 4.91 7.00
Right lateral collsion 42(12.14%) 5.69 2.95 4.77 6.61
Multiple collsion 40(11.56%) 7.03 3.78 5.82 8.23
Pedestrian accident 8(2.31%) 7.75 2.96 5.27 10.23
Motorcycle accident 5(1.45%) 5.60 3.36 1.43 9.77
Fall accident 2(0.58%) 7.50 4.95 −36.97 51.97
Crushing accident 2(0.58%) 5.50 0.71 −0.85 11.85
Rollover Accident 1(0.29%) 6.00 - - -
Accident while riding bus 1(0.29%) 9.00 - - -

Total 346 5.94 3.38 5.58 6.30

SUV: Sport Utility Vehicle

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