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JKM > Volume 41(3); 2020 > Article
Kim, Yang, Chae, Choi, Ryu, Jung, Kim, Seol, and Yoo: A Review of Clinical Research on Korean Medicine for Shoulder Pain Conducted in Korea

Abstract

Objectives

Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal complaint that necessitates physician consultation and significantly diminishes patients’ quality of life. In this review, we analyzed clinical studies that investigated the use of Korean Medicine for the treatment of shoulder pain.

Methods

We searched the online Korean databases, such as KMBase, DBpia, NDSL, RISS, KISS, and OASIS for clinical studies that report the use of Korean Medicine for shoulder pain. We analyzed the included studies with regard to study design, interventions, evaluations, and results.

Results

We analyzed data from the following 29 studies: 14 clinical trials (which included 9 randomized controlled trials) and 15 observational studies (which included 11 case reports). In this review, we observed that post-stroke shoulder pain was the most common cause of shoulder pain, which was reported in 13 out of 29 studies (44.8%), although in actual clinical practice, patients are more likely to present with primary shoulder pain. Most included studies (72.4%) reported manual acupuncture as the most common intervention for shoulder pain. More than 50% of the studies used range of motion (58.6%) and the numeric rating scale (51.7%) to evaluate shoulder function and pain, respectively. Although the result was not statistically significant in all included studies, most studies concluded that Korean Medicine could be considered an effective treatment option in patients with shoulder pain.

Conclusions

Based on analysis of studies included in this review, Korean Medicine can be considered useful clinical treatment for shoulder pain.

Fig. 1
Flow Diagram of Study Selection
jkm-41-3-221f1.gif
Fig. 2
Number of Clinical Studies Published by Years
jkm-41-3-221f2.gif
Fig. 3
Risk of Bias Graph
jkm-41-3-221f3.gif
Fig. 4
Risk of Bias Summary
jkm-41-3-221f4.gif
Fig. 3
Case Reports According to The Quality of Reporting Evaluated by Each Item of CARE Guidelines
jkm-41-3-221f5.gif
Table 1
Search Formula
Database Search Formula Number of Results
KMbase ((([ALL=어깨통증] OR [ALL=어깨관절 통증]) OR [ALL=견통]) OR [ALL=견관절통]))
AND(((((((([ALL=한방] OR [ALL=한의]) OR [ALL=침]) OR [ALL=약침]) OR [ALL=봉침]) OR [ALL=뜸]) OR [ALL=부항]) OR [ALL=추나])
9
DBpia 전체=( 어깨통증 | 어깨관절 통증 | 견관절통 | 견통) AND 전체=( 한방 | 침 | 약침 | 봉침 | 뜸 | 부항 | 추나) 12
NDSL Advanced search, 국내논문, whole field (어깨통증 | 어깨관절 통증 | 견관절통 | 견통) AND (한방 | 한의 | 침 | 약침 | 봉침 | 뜸 | 부항 | 추나) 43
RISS 전체 : (어깨통증 | 어깨관절 통증 | 견관절통 | 견통) <AND> 전체: (한방 | 한의 | 침 | 약침 | 봉침 | 뜸 | 부항 | 추나) 60
KISS 전체 = (어깨통증 | 어깨관절 통증 | 견관절통 | 견통) AND 전체 = (한방 | 한의 | 침 | 약침 | 봉침 | 뜸 | 부항 | 추나) 27
OASIS 어깨통증 | 어깨관절 통증 | 견관절통 | 견통 28
Table 2
Number of Clinical Studies Published by Journals
Name of Journal Number of Publication
Journal of Acupuncture Research 6
Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation 4
Journal of Pharmacopuncture 4
Journal of Korean Medicine 3
Journal of Haehwa Medicine 3
The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine 2
The Journal of Korea CHUNA Manual Medicine for Spine & Nerves 2
The Journal of Jeahan Oriental Medical Academy 1
The Journal of the Society of Stroke on Korean Medicine 1
Korean Journal of Acupuncture 1
Journal of Oriental Medical Thermology 1
Graduate School of Engineering KonKuk University 1
Table 3
Composition of Interventions
Pharmacopuncture
Name Composition
Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture 梔子(Gardeniae Fructus), 玄胡索(Corydalis Rhizoma), 乳香(Olibanum), 沒藥 (Myrrha), 桃仁(Persicae Semen), 赤芍藥(Paeoniae Radix Rubra), 丹蔘(Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix), 蘇木(Sappan Lignum)
Hwangryunhaedok-tang pharmacopuncture 黃芩(Scutellariae Radix), 黃蓮(Coptidis Rhizoma), 黃柏(Phellodendri Cortex), 梔子(Gardeniae Fructus)
Zingiberis rhizoma herbal acupuncture 生薑(Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens)
Ligamentum pharmacopuncture 膠飴(Saccharum Granorum), 白芷(Angelicae Dahuricae Radix)
Herbal Topical Gel
Dapureo gel 蓮子肉(Nelumbinis Semen), 薄荷(Menthae Herba), 黃蓮(Coptidis Rhizoma), 甘菊(Chrysanthemi Flos), 酸棗仁(Zizyphi Spinosae Semen), 遠志(Polygalae Radix), 石菖蒲(Acori Graminei Rhizoma), 香附子(Cyperi Rhizoma), 竹茹(Bambusae Caulis In Taeniam) 白茯神(Hoelen cum Pini Radix) etc.
Table 4
Percentage of items Recording according to CARE Guide by Each Case Report
Case Reports Reporting Not-Reporting

Sufficient Not-Sufficient
1st author (year) n1/N % n2/N % (n1+n2)/N % n3/N %
Han MG(2000) 16//28 57.14 7/28 25.00 23/28 82.14 5/28 17.85
Shin WY(2006) 16/28 57.14 7/28 25.00 23/28 82.14 5/28 17.85
Kim JH(2011) 18/28 64.28 3/28 10.71 21/28 75.00 7/28 25.00
Kim NH(2011) 11/28 39.28 9/28 32.12 20/28 71.42 8/28 28.57
Jung YG(2012) 17/28 60.71 3/28 10.71 20/28 71.42 8/28 28.57
Lee SJ(2014) 14/28 50.00 8/28 28.57 22/28 78.57 6/28 21.42
Lee HJ(2016) 12/28 42.85 8/28 28.57 20/28 71.42 8/28 28.57
Song KC(2017) 15/28 53.57 5/28 17.85 20/28 71.42 8/28 28.57
Lim HC(2017) 13/28 46.42 9/28 32.12 21/28 75.00 6/28 21.42
Seo HJ(2017) 19/28 67.85 4/28 14.28 23/28 82.14 5/28 17.85
Jeong SJ(2017) 16/28 57.14 6/28 21.42 22/28 78.57 6/28 21.42

1) ‘n1’, ‘n2’, and ‘n3’ mean the number of which items match each assessment-criteria: Sufficient, Not-Sufficient and Not-Reporting, respectively.

2) ‘N’ means the number of applicable items.

Table 5
Percentage of Case Reports with Reporting Items of CARE Guide by Each Item
Section Item description Sufficient Not-Sufficient Not-Reporting
n/N % n/N % n/N %
Title 1 The words “case report” should be in the title along with phenomenon of greatest interest 5/11 45.45 6/11 54.54* - -
Key word 2 The key elements of this case in 2–5 words. 8/11 72.72 3/11 27.27 - -
Abstract 3a Introduction-What does this case add? 7/11 63.63 4/11 36.36 - -
3b Case presentation:
- The main symptoms of the patient
- The main clinical findings
- The main diagnoses and interventions
- The main outcomes
5/11 45.45 6/11 54.54* - -
3c Conclusion-What are the main “take-away” lessons from this case? 9/11 81.81 2/11 18.18 - -
Introduction 4 Brief background summary of the case referencing the relevant medical literature. 10/11 90.90 1/11 9.09 - -
Patient information 5a Demographic information of the patient (age, gender, ethnicity, occupation) 10/11 90.90 1/11 9.09 - -
5b Main symptoms of the patient (his or her chief complaints) 10/11 90.90 1/11 9.09 - -
5c Medical, family, and psychosocial history-including diet, life style and genetic information whenever possible and details about relevant comorbidities and past interventions and their outcomes 4/11 36.36 6/11 54.54* - -
Clinical findings 6 Describe the relevant physical examination (PE) and other significant clinical findings. 9/11 81.81 2/11 18.18 - -
Timeline 7 Depict Important dates and times in the case (table or figure) 1/11 9.09 9/11 81.81* 1/11 9.09
Diagnostic assessment 8a Diagnostic methods (such as PE, laboratory testing, imaging, questionnaires) 9/11 81.81 2/11 18.18 - -
8b Diagnostic challenges (such as financial or language/cultural) - - - - 11/11 100.00*
8c Diagnostic reasoning including other diagnoses considered 5/11 45.45 4/11 36.36 2/11 18.18
8d Prognostic characteristics (such as staging in oncology) where applicable 2/11 18.18 2/11 18.18 7/11 63.63*
Therapeutics interventions 9a Types of intervention (such as pharmacologic, surgical, preventive, self-care) 11/11 100.00 - - - -
9b Administration of intervention (such as dosage, strength, duration) 5/11 45.45 6/11 54.54* - -
9c Changes in intervention (with rationale) 1/11 9.09 5/11 45.45 5/11 45.45
Follow-up and outcomes 10a Clinician and patient-assessed outcomes (when appropriate) 10/11 90.90 1/11 9.09 - -
10b Important follow-up diagnostic evaluations and other test results (positive or negative) 10/11 90.90 1/11 9.09 - -
10c Intervention adherence and tolerability (and how this was assessed) - - - - 11/11 100.00*
10d Adverse and unanticipated events - - - - 11/11 100.00*
Discussion 11a Strengths and limitations of the management of this case-with references 10/11 90.90 1/11 9.09 - -
11b Relevant medical literature 11/11 100.00 - - - -
11c Rationale for conclusions (including assessment of cause and effect) 6/11 54.54 5/11 45.45 - -
11d Main “take-away” lessons of this case report 9/11 81.81 - - 2/11 18.18
Patient perspective 12 The patient should share their perspective or experience whenever possible. - - - - 11/11 100.00*
Informed consent 13 Did the patient give informed consent? Please provide if requested. - - - - 11/11 100.00*

1) ‘n’ means the number of which case reports match each assessment criteria of items: Sufficient, Not-Sufficient, Not-Reporting, respectively.

2) ‘N’ means that the number of case reports having applicable items.

3) ‘*’ means that the percentage of not-reporting items or not-sufficiently reporting items more than 50%

Table 6
Charateristics of Clinical Studies
First author (year) Study design Sample size(T:C) Casuses Treatment intervention Control intervention Treatment period Outcome measures Effective results
Lee (1999) RCT 40 (20:20) Post stroke Taping, ATx ATx 3 weeks
2/a week
1) VAS
2) ROM
3) Motor grade
1) p<0.05
2) p>0.05
3) p>0.05
Yin (2000) RCT 24 (12:12) Post stroke BVP, H-med, ATx, PTx. H-med, ATx. PTx. 4 weeks
3/a week
1) VAS
2) ROM
3) FMMA
4) MAS
1) p<0.01
2) p<0.01
3) p<0.05
4) p>0.05
Bae (2004) RCT 43 (21:22) Post stroke JSP, H-med, ATx,PTx. N/S inj, H-med, ATx, PTx 1 week
3/a week
1) VAS
2) Motor grade
3) MBI
4) NIHSS
5) AI
1) p<0.05
2) p>0.05
3) p>0.05
4) p>0.05
5) p>0.05
Cho (2005) RCT 23 (12:11) Post stroke ZR, H-med, ATx, PTx. BVP, H-med, ATx, PTx. 2 weeks
7/a week
1) VAS
2) ROM
3) MMT
1. ZR
1) p<0.05
2) Add, Flx p<0.05 Abd, Ext p>0.05
3) p<0.05
2. BVP
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
3) p<0.05
Eom (2006) RCT 30 (10:10:10) Post stroke 1. BVA
2. BVP
ATx. 4 weeks
3/a week
1) VAS
2) ROM
3) FMMA
4) MAS
1. BVA
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
3) p<0.05
2. BVP
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
3) p<0.05
3. ATx.
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
3) p<0.05
Ko (2007) RCT 46 (24:22) Post stroke BVP, H-med, ATx, PTx, Mox N/S inj, H-med, ATx, PTx, Mox 2 weeks
3/a week
1) VAS
2) PRS
3) ROM
4) FMMA
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
3) p<0.05
4) p<0.05
Park (2011) RCT 40 (21:19) Post stroke BVP N/S inj. 4 weeks
3/a week
1) VAS
2) PRS
3) ROM
4) FMMA
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
3) p<0.05
4) p<0.05
Jo (2014) RCT 30 (15:15) UC Dapureo Gel Water Gel 2weeks
7/a week
1) VAS
2) SPADI
1) p<0.001
2) p<0.05
Ji (2014) RCT 17 (9:8) Acute trauma JSP EA 2 weeks
3/a week
1) VAS
2) ROM
1. JSP
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
2. EA
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
Yoon (2006) nRCT 44 (24:20) Muscle tension Intradermal ATx. No intervention 2 weeks
2/a week
1) VAS
2) Self-rating pain sensitivity
1) p=0.000
2) p=0.000
Shin (1998) Before-After Study 21 Post stroke H-med, ATx, PTx. - 2 weeks ~ over 16 weeks 1) ROM
2) Motor grade
Improved (without p-value)
Kim (2009) Before-After Study 20 UC Dry cupping therapy - 1 week
2/a week
1) VAS
2) ROM
1) p<0.01
2) Flx p<0.01
Ext p<0.05
Abd, Int Ro, Ext Ro. p>0,05
Park (2010) Before-After Study 15 Muscle tension Low level laser therapy - 2 weeks
4/a week
1) Self-rating pain sensitivity
2) SPADI
3) PPT
1) p<0.01
2) p<0.01
3) p<0.01
Sohn (2011) Before-After Study 27 Muscle tension Dry cupping therapy - 2 weeks
2/a week
1) VAS
2) Frequency of pain
1) p<0.001
2) p<0.001
Han (2000) Case report 1 Post stroke ATx, Mox, PTx - Over 8months ROM Improved
Shin (2006) Case report 3 Post stroke H-med, ATx, Dry cupping therapy, PTx. - 1. 1 month
2. 1 week
3. 1 week
VAS 1. 7.5→1.5
2. 10→3.5
3. 6→3
Kim (2011) Case report 9 Post stroke H-med, ATx, EA, Mox - 10~34 days 1) PRS
2) ROM
1) p<0.05
2) p<0.05
Kim (2011) Case report 1 Calcific tendinitis H-med, ATx, EA, Mox, JSP - 12 days
1/a day
1) VAS
2) SPADI
3) UCLA-score
1) 9→4
2) 92→48
3) 6→13
Jung (2012) Case report 3 Impingement Syndrome H-med, ATx, HHP, - 1) 10 days
2) 12 days
3) 9 days
1) NRS
2) ROM
3) P/E
1. 1) 10→3
2. 1) 10→1
3. 1) 10→1
Lee (2014) Case report 2 Partial tear of SSP ART, H-med, ATx, BVP, PTx. - 1 month 1) VAS
2) ROM
3) P/E
1.1) 9→2
2.1) 5→2
Lee (2016) Case report 1 Muscle tension ATx. - 1 day 1) NRS
2) PPT
3) ROM
1) 5→2
2) left: 19N→22N right: 22N→27N
3) no change
Song (2017) Case report 4 SSP tendinitis, SASD bursitis H-med, ATx, SP - 13~19 days 1) NRS
2) ROM
3) SPADI
4) P/E
1. 1) 10→1
3) 53.85→10
2. 1) 10→2
3) 75.2→11.54
3. 1) 10→1
3) 58.85→5.38
4. 1)10→2
3) 60→10
Lim (2017) Case report 1 Post stroke H-med, ATx, JSP, Dry cupping therapy, PTx. - 2 months 1) NRS
2) MMT
1) 10→2
2) 3/4→4/5
Seo (2017) Case report 1 Post stroke H-med, ATx, Mox, EA - 23 days 1) NRS
2) Awakening time
1) 7→2
2) 5→1
Jeong (2017) Case report 4 Muscle tension H-med, ATx, EA, BVP, LP, PTx. - 5~16 days 1) NRS
2) ROM
3) SPADI
1. 1) 8→3
3) 70→46.15
2. 1) 6→1
3) 23.07→5.384
3. 1) 9→5
3) 50.76→39.23
4. 1) 6→2
3) 60→40
Chae (1987) Case series 44 UC H-med, ATx, PTx - Under 1 week ~ over 4 weeks 1) VAS
2) ROM
TER=68.1%
Sin (1998) Case series 3700 UC H-med, ATx, Dry cupping therapy, PTx. - UC Subjective evaluation TER=87.6%
Lim (2014) Case series 28 SASD bursitis, SSP partial tear, Adhesive capsulitis, AC joint arthropathy, SSP tendinosis, Sheath of long bicipital tendon ganglion cyst, SSP full thickness tear, SSC partial tear, ISP partial tear, SSP calcific tendinitis, SLAP lesion, SSC tendinosis, ISP full thickness tear, ISP calcific tendinitis, SSC tendinitis etc. H-med, ATx, EA, SP - Over 2 weeks
2/a day
1) NRS
2) ROM
1) 6.36→3.50
2) Flx 150→164.20, Abd 143.57→160.36, Int Ro. 73.04→78.39, Ext. Ro. 69.812→78.39
Lee (2015) Case series 410 Sprain, Rotator cuff injury, Adhesive capsulitis, SLAP & Biceps tendon injury, Calcific tendinitis, Shoulder arthrosis - Variant, average 9.17 days Subjective symptom, ROM TER=75.12%

T: Treatment group, C: Control group, UC: Unclear, ATx: Acupuncture treatment, BVP: Bee venom pharmacopuncture, H-med: Herbal medicine, PTx: Physical therapy, JSP: Jungsongouhyul pharmacopunture, N/S: Normal saline, ZR: Zingiberis rhizoma herbal acupuncture, Abd: Abduction, Add: Adduction, Flx: Flexion, Ext: Extension, BVA: Bee venom Acupuncture, Mox: moxibustion, EA: Electroacupuncture, Int Ro: Internal rotation, Ext Ro: External Rotation, HHP: Hwangryunhaedok-tang pharmacopuncture, ART: Active release technique, SP: Shinbaro pharmacopuncture, LP: Ligamentum pharmacopuncture, TER: Total effective rate, SSP: Supraspinatus, SASD: Subacromial-subdeltoid, AC: Acromioclavicular, ISP: Infraspinatus, SSC: Subscapularis

Table 7
Acupoints Classification by Distance to Site of Pain
Local acupoints Distal acupoints
肩髃(LI15), 肩井(GB21), 肩髎(TE14), 臑兪(SI10), 天宗(SI11), 巨骨(LI16), 秉風(SI12), 肩外兪(SI14), 曲垣(SI13), 肩中兪(SI15), 臂臑(LI14), 肩前(EX-UE), 肩貞(SI9) 曲池(LI11), 外關(TE5), 合谷(LI4), 太衝(LR3), 足三里(ST36), 懸鍾(GB39), 三陰交(SP6), 百會(GV20), 後谿(SI3), 風市(GB31), 陽陵泉(GB34), 陰陵泉(SP9), 條口(ST38), 風池(GB20), 中㵭(TE3), 地倉(ST4), 頰車(ST6), 八風(EX-LE10), 八邪(EX-UE9), 天髎(TE15), 太谿(KI3), 水泉(KI5), 照海(KI6), 復溜(KI7), 交信(KI8), 築賓(KI9), 太白(SP3), 太淵(LU9), 魚際(LU10), 少府(HT8), 大敦(LR1), 陰谷(KI10), 少海(HT3), 少衝(HT9), 承山(BL57), 水溝(GV26), 委中(BL40), 申脈(BL62), 曲鬢(GB7), 崑崙(BL60), 承漿(CV24), 手三里(LI10), 下巨虛(ST39)

* Acupoints only used in one of the studies are in italics.

Table 8
Frequency of Meridians Used
Meridians Acupoints Number of acupoints
Taiyang Small Intestine Channel of Hand (手太陽小腸經) 後谿(SI3), 臑兪(SI10), 天宗(SI11), 秉風(SI12), 肩外兪(SI14), 曲垣(SI13) 6
Shaoyang Gallbladder Channel of Foot (足少陽膽經) 懸鍾(GB39), 風市(GB31), 陽陵泉(GB34), 風池(GB20), 肩井(GB21) 5
Yangming Large Intestine Channel of Hand (手陽明大腸經) 曲池(LI11), 合谷(LI4), 肩髃(LI15), 巨骨(LI16) 4
Shaoyang Sanjiao Channel of Hand (手少陽三焦經) 外關(TE5), 中㵭(TE3), 肩髎(TE14) 3
Yangming Stomach Channel of Foot (足陽明胃經) 足三里(ST36), 條口(ST38) 2
Taiyin Spleen Channel of Foot (足太陰脾經) 三陰交(SP6), 陰陵泉(SP9) 2
Jueyin Liver Channel of Foot (足厥陰肝經) 太衝(LR3) 1
Governing Vessel (督脈) 百會(GV20) 1

* The acupoints in this table are used in two or more studies.

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21 Kim JH, Kwak HY, Jung KY, Seon JI, Lee UI, Nam DW, et al. A Case Report on the Effect of Electroacupuncture at LI15 and TE14 for the Treatment of Shoulder Pain in Post-stroke Hemiplegia Patients. J Acupunct Res. 2011; 28:6. 159–67.


22 Song KC, Seo JY, Song SB, Cho MU, Choi BS, Ryu WH, et al. A Case Report on the improvement of Range of Motion and Pain Relief for Patients Diagnosed with Supraspinatus Tendinosis, Subacromial Bursitis and Subdeltoid Bursitis treated with Megadose Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture. J Haehwa Med. 2017; 26:1. 73–80.


23 Jeong SJ, Jin JY, Kwak MK, Kim SA, Wei TS. Four Cases of Shoulder Pain Treated by Ligamentum Pharmacopuncture on Kyonu (LI15), Gyeollyo(TE14), Geogol(LI16) and Nosu(SI10). Korean J Acupunct. 2017; 34:4. 271–6.
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24 Jung YG, Kim MY, Kim JS, Choi Y, Choi HS, Cho TY. A Case Report of Prescribing Geumchuldodam-tang for the Three Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. J Korea CHUNA Man Med Spine Nerves. 2012; 7:1. 85–94.


25 Shin WY, Hyun JO, Choi EY, Kang AM, Kim YH, Jo EY, et al. 3 Case Reports of Cheongungkyeoji-tang for Post-stroke Patients with Shoulder Pain. J Intern Korean Med. 2006; 27:4. 936–44.


26 Lee SJ, Park JH, Nam SH, Kang JH. Two Clinical Cases of Active Release Technique with Koeran Medicine Treatment for Supraspinatus Tendon Partial Tear. J Korea CHUNA Man Med spine nerves. 2014; 9:1. 89–101.


27 Lee HJ, Lee NH, Son CG, Cho JH. Acupuncture Stimulation on LR3 Reduced Shoulder Pain Caused by Upper Trapezius Rigidity. A Case Report. J Haehwa Med. 2016; 25:1. 63–9.


28 Sohn D, Yoon HM, Jung HM. The Effects of Dry Cupping Therapy on the Shoulder Pain and Fatigue of Nurses. J Pharmacopuncture. 2011; 14:2. 25–36.
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29 Park KM, Lee GJ, Song YK, Lim HH. The Clinical Effects of Low Level Laser Therapy on Shoulder Pain. J Korean Med Rehabil. 2010; 20:1. 183–92.


30 Han MG, Heo SY. The study of rehabilitational treatment on shoulder pain in hemiplegic stroke patients. J Jeahan Orient Med Acad. 2000; 5:1. 43–53.


31 Kim NH, Jang HJ, Kim JH, Hwang DS, Bock JJ. A Clinical Study on the Case of Right Shoulder Pain occurred in Calclfic tendinitis. J Orient Med Thermol. 2011; 9:1. 37–43.


32 Seo HJ, Cho JH, Bae GE, Choi JY, Shim SH, Han CW, et al. A Case Report of a Cerebral Infarction Patient with Shoulder Pain Using Korean Medical Treatment. J Soc Stroke Korean Med. 2017; 18:1. 87–96.


33 Lee SH, Chung SH, Lee JS, Kim SS, Dae SH. The Effect of Scapular Girdle Taping on Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain: A Clinical Study. J Korean Med. 1999; 20:3. 115–26.


34 Jo SJ, Choi YD, Jang JT, Kim KS, Lee SD. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Topical Herbal Gel Treatment for Chronic Shoulder Pain. J Acupunct Res. 2014; 31:4. 1–9.
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35 Park JA, Lee CH, Kwon GS, Lee KA, Jang KJ. The Effects of Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture on the Post-stroke Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain. J Acupunct Res. 2011; 28:4. 37–47.


36 Yin CS, Nam SS, Kim YS, Dong LJ, Kim CH, Koh HK. Effects of Honeybee Venom Acupuncture Therapy on the Poststroke Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain. J Pharmacopuncture. 2000; 3:2. 213–32.
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37 Bae HH, Park YC. Effectiveness of Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture Simultaneous Treatment on Poststroke Shoulder Pain. J Pharmacopuncture. 2004; 7:1. 77–86.


38 Cho SW, Go KH, Nam JH, Kim MS, Lee SY, Lee IS, et al. The Effectiveness of Zingiberis Rhizoma Herbal Acupuncture Therapy and Bee Venom Herbal Acupuncture Therapy on the Poststroke Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain. J Korean Med Rehabil. 2005; 15:4. 77–87.


39 Yoon HM, Kim JH, Lee JW. The Effect of Intradermal Acupuncture Therapy at Kyeonjeong, Cheonryo and Kokji on the Shoulder Pain. J Acupunct Res. 2006; 23:5. 155–65.


40 Shin BC, Kwon YD, Song YS. Radiological clinical study on shoulder subluxation due to post-stroke paralysis. J Korean Med Rehabil. 1998; 8:2. 383–403.


41 Kim HS. The effect of dry cupping therapy on the pain relief and ROM changes of the shoulder. Soeul: Graduate School of Engineering, Konkuk University;2009. p. 53


42 Lee GY, Jo HG, Seol JU, Kim SA. A Review of the Pain and Function Assessment Instruments for Shoulder Disease Patients in Korean Medicine Clinical Studies Published in South Korea. J Korean Med Rehabil. 2018; 28:1. 33–51.
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43 Kim HW, Kim SS, Park SW, Kim EK, Lee GH, Lee GM. A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Acupuncture Treatment for Shoulder Pain. J Acupunct Res. 2010; 27:4. 67–84.


44 Choi H-M, Han S-Y, Hwang D-R, Kang J-H. Acupuncture Treatment for Rotator Cuff Disorder: A Systematic Review. J Korean Med Rehabil. 2018; 28:4. 11–20.
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45 Choi SY. Evaluation of the Quality of Case Reports from the Journal of Korean Medicine Based on the CARE Guidelines. 2020; 41:May. 122–36.


46 Lee HL, Kim JH, Lee MS, Lee JA. Evaluation of the Quality of the Case Reports from the Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine Based on the CARE Guidelines. J Korean Med. 2018; 32:3. 131–40.


47 Kim JH, Lim LH, Lee JA, Lee MS. Assesment of The Quality of Reporting in Case Reports in Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine from Year 2015 to 2018: Using CARE Guidelines. 2018; 30:2. 28–41.


48 Lee HS, Lee J, Han JH, Chae H. Evaluation of the Quality of Case Reports in Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry Using CARES Guideline. 2019; 30:2. 59–69.


49 Nam EY, Park JY. Evaluation of the Quality of the Case Reports from the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Korean Medicine Based on the CARE Guidelines. 2019; 32:2. 71–86.


50 Ahn JH, Ko JH, Kim SY, Kim SJ, Bae JH, Yoon YJ, et al. Evaluation of Adherence to the CARE (CAse REport) Guidelines of Case Reports in the Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation. J Korean Med Rehabil. 2019; 29:3. 75–85.
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