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JKM > Volume 35(1); 2014 > Article
Lim, Min, Hur, Kim, Chun, Suh, Kim, Lee, Park, Baik, and Kim: Relationship between Bone Age, Chronological Age, Anthropometric Parameters, and Diagnosed Pulse Rate on secondary sexual character development of child-Adolescence



The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between bone age, chronological age, anthropometric parameters, and diagnosed pulse rate on child-adolescence’s growth according to sex and the revelation of secondary sexual characteristics.


Growth-concerned 44 children and adolescence (from 6 to 16 years) were analyzed in retrospective study. They visited Korean Medical Clinic in Suwon, Korea from January 2012 to October 2013. Individual bone age (BA), chronological age (CA), Risser sign, anthropometric parameters, and pulse rate were measured. The correlations of each variable were done by Pearson analysis, Spearman analysis and Regression analysis.


1. The female group was shown to have stronger negative correlation between pulse rate and BA, CA than the male group. In gender analysis, the female group showed negative correlation between weight and pulse rate. 2. In a further analysis according to the revelation of secondary sexual characteristics, the group of child-adolescent without secondary sexual characteristics was shown to have stronger negative correlation between pulse rate and BA, CA than the group with secondary sexual characteristics. The height percentile and pulse rate were negative correlation in secondary sexual character being. 3. The Risser sign and pulse rate were not correlated in this study.


These findings suggested that a regular and continual measurement of pulse rate is effective in estimating potential for growth in child-adolescent group.

Fig. 1
Flow chart
Fig. 2
Scatter plot of pulse rate and bone age according to sex.
Fig. 3
Scatter plot of pulse rate and chronological age according to sex.
Fig. 4
Scatter plot of pulse rate and bone age according to the revelation of secondary sexual character
Fig. 5
Scatter plot of pulse rate and chronological age according to the revelation of secondary sexual character
Table 1
Characteristics of the Children and Adolescence Included in the Present Study
Male (n=19) Female (n=25) Total (n=44)
CA (months) 158.6±23.7 120.9±26.5 137.2±31.4
Bone age (months) 162.3±28.6 120.0±29.0 138.2±35.6
MPH (cm) 170.5±3.3 157.8±3.9 163.3±7.3
Heart rate (N/min) 76.9±10.4 83.6±8.6 80.7±9.9
Height (cm) 157.1±13.0 135.6±13.4 144.8±16.9
Height Percentile (%) 52.6±25.3 40.0±28.9 45.5±27.8
Weight (kg) 48.5±9.9 32.6±10.1 39.5±12.7
Weight Percentile (%) 47.5±21.8 41.1±30.4 43.9±26.9
BMI (kg/m2) 19.5±2.3 17.4±2.8 18.3±2.8
BMI Percentile (%) 44.8±22.5 43.6±28.9 44.1±26.1

CA, Chronological Age; MPH, Mid Parental Height; N, Number; BMI, Body Mass Index

Table 2
The Correlation Analysis of Pulse Rate and Variables according to Sex
r (p-value)

Male (n=19) Female (n=25)
Bone age −0.549 (0.015) −0.686 (0.000)
Chronological age −0.546 (0.016) −0.683 (0.000)
BMI 0.151 (0.538) −0.187 (0.370)
BMI percentile 0.379 (0.110) 0.112 (0.593)
Height −0.682 (0.001) −0.722 (0.000)
Height percentile −0.428 (0.068) −0.206 (0.323)
Weight −0.446 (0.056) −0.492 (0.013)
Weight percentile 0.094 (0.701) −0.025 (0.904)

BMI, Body Mass Index

Table 3
The Correlation Analysis of Pulse Rate and Variables according to the Revelation of Secondary Sexual Character
r (p-value)

Nothing (n=16) Being (n=28)
Bone age −0.807 (0.000) −0.441 (0.019)
Chronological age −0.788 (0.000) −0.437 (0.020)
BMI 0.016 (0.954) 0.036 (0.856)
BMI percentile 0.447 (0.082) 0.173 (0.380)
Height −0.756 (0.001) −0.607 (0.001)
Height percentile −0.094 (0.730) −0.411 (0.030)
Weight −0.575 (0.020) −0.373 (0.051)
Weight percentile 0.294 (0.269) −0.076 (0.700)

BMI, Body Mass Index

Table 4
Bone Age and Chronological Age of the Children and Adolescence Included in Risser Sign Analysis
BA (CA), months

Male Female Total
RS 3 step 176.7±5.8 (159.3±9.5) 163.0±0.0 (150.0±0.0) 173.3±8.3 (157.0±9.1)
RS 4 step 183.0±3.2 (178.5±8.3) 180.0±0.0 (175.0±4.2) 182.4±3.1 (177.8±7.6)

RS, Risser sign


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