Home | Register | Login | Inquiries | Alerts | Sitemap |  

Advanced Search
JKM > Volume 34(3); 2013 > Article
Yoon, Hong, Noh, Yi, Lee, and Lew: Observation of Inflammatory Marker Levels in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Youngyopaedoc-san-related Anti-atherogenic Effect



Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high fat diet, and atherogenic changes were seen in the aorta. However, when Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet and administered Youngyopaedoc-san together, these atherogenic changes were rarely seen. This study was aimed to find the inflammatory marker level changes in Sprague-Dawley rats with Youngyopaedoc-san-related anti-atherogenic effect.


The extract from Youngyopaedoc-san was made by the pharmacy department of Kyung-hee Oriental Medical Hospital. The animals were divided into five groups: normal diet, high fat diet, high fat diet with Youngyopaedoc-san, high fat diet with Vytorin, and high fat diet with Youngyopaedoc-san and Vytorin. A light microscopic image of a cross section taken from the aorta of the Sprague-Dawley rat was analyzed. We compared inflammatory marker levels among the five groups.


The complex of Youngyopaedoc-san and Vytorin has more anti-atherogenic effects in the aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet than Vytorin alone. Youngyopaedoc-san has inhibitory effect on the increase of IFN-ɣ and IL-2 levels. The difference on eosinophil levels of each group was statistically significant, but the eosinophil level of each group was within normal limits, so the difference on eosinophil levels was not clinically significant.


Youngyopaedoc-san-related anti-atherogenic effect could be a result of inhibitory mechanism on IFN-ɣ and IL-2.

Fig. 1.
The light microscopic images of a cross section taken through the wall of the aorta of Sprague Dawley rats.
As shown in (A) and (B), the innermost layer, the endothelial cells are supported by a thin bed of subendothelial connective tissue that rest on thick sheet of elastic fiber. In (C) and (D), The arrow shows subendothelial foam cell deposits. In (E), The arrow shows the tunica intima composed of endothelial cells and elastic lamina tightly. The foamy vacuolization and fat deposits in the tunica media mean degenerative changes of wall. In (F), The arrow shows degenerative chages in the tunica media at the bifurcation of aorta. In (G), The arrow shows the foamy vacuolization in the tunica intima apparently. In (H), The arrow shows the vacuolization and the fat infiltration in the tunica media. In (I), The arrow shows minor fat deposits in the subendothelial layer. In (J), The arrow slightly shows minor vacuolizaion in the endothelial layer. It is almost normal. Animals were divided into five groups: Normal, fed with normal diet; Control, fed with high fat diet; YG, fed with high fat diet with Youngyopaedoc-san; VY, fed with high fat diet with Vytorin; and YG+VY, fed with high fat diet with Youngyopaedoc-san and Vytorin.
Table 1.
Youngyopaedoc-san Prescription of Kyung-hee Oriental Medical Hospital
Constitute Herbs Weight
Ostericii Radix 3.0g
Angelicae Pubescentis Radix 3.0g
Bupleuri Radix 3.0g
Peucedani Radix 3.0g
Platycodi Radix 3.0g
Cnidii Rhizoma 3.0g
Poria 3.0g
Lonicerae Flos 3.0g
Aurantii Fructus 3.0g
Forsythiae Fructus 3.0g
Saposhnikovia Radix 3.0g
Schizonepetae Spica 3.0g
Menthae Herba 3.0g
Glycyrrhizae Radix 3.0g

Total amount 42g
Table 2.
Components of Normal Diet
Ingredient Proportion (%)
Moisture 11.03
Protein 20.89
Fat 4.75
Fiber 5.77
Ash 6.04
Calcium 1.24
Phosphorus 0.55
etc. 49.73

Total amount 100
Table 3.
Components of High Fat Diet
Ingredient Proportion (%) by weight
Protein 23.5
Cardohydrate 27.3
Fat 34.3
etc. 14.9

Total amount 100
Ingredient Proportion (%) kcal from
Protein 18.4
Cardohydrate 21.3
Fat 60.3

Total amount 100
Casein 26.50
L-Cystine 0.40
Maltodextrin 16.00
Sucrose 9.00
Lard 31.00
Soybean Oil 3.00
Cellulose 6.55
Mineral Mix AIN-93G-MX (94046) 4.80
Calcium Phosphate, dibasic 0.34
Vitamin Mix V10001, AIN-93-VX (94047) 2.10
Choline Bitartrate 0.30
Blue Food Color 0.01

Total amount 100
Table 4.
Inflammatory Marker Level of Each Group
Normal Control YG VY YG+VY
WBC (103/μl) 8.73±2.16 8.07±2.55 7.11±3.05 7.02±2.41 7.35±2.92
S-Neutrophil (%) 12.89±4.99 13.65±2.79 15.25±4.56 15.14±2.11 13.43±3.71
Lymphocyte (%) 83.70±5.88 82.49±2.77 80.59±4.92 79.39±3.18 83.40±4.08
Monocyte (%) 1.45±0.67 1.50±0.46 1.49±0.50 1.45±0.52 1.54±0.40
Eosinophil (%) 1.75±0.90 2.14±0.50 2.50±1.67 3.83±2.51* (P=0.008) 1.45±0.42* (P=0.035)
hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.40±0.20 1.43±0.74 1.43±0.07 1.41±0.83 1.49±1.25
IFN-γ (ρg/μl) 74.15±45.76 137.96±67.52 46.34±15.37* 151.03±117.38 61.56±35.15*
IL-1β (ρg/μl) 300.56±118.97 339.00±102.63 485.28±248.43 341.33±110.23 294.84±71.95
IL-2 (ρg/μl) 315.58±98.38 749.08±417.33 305.60±134.92* 655.06±268.36 495.38±237.24
IL-4 (ρg/μl) 40.44±32.87 55.69±38.73 26.00±15.49 38.24±16.34 13.42±7.08
IL-12p70 (ρg/μl) 1.68±0.11 2.24±0.48 2.00±0.00 2.13±0.51 4.08±3.27
TNF-α (ρg/μl) 464.82±154.05 940.92±427.56 1533.76±991.65 1240.23±587.81 1553.17±989.89
IL-6 (ρg/μl) 385.04±147.93 498.14±252.64 958.64±903.15 452.69±67.08 460.67±208.90

The results are expressed as mean±S.D (n=8). The significant differences with the control group were statistically calculated by Mann-Whitney test. YG: The group administered Youngyopaedoc-san, VY: The group administered Vytorin, YG+VY: The group administered Youngyopaedoc-san and Vytorin.


1.. Jeong NS. New steps to internal medicine Cardiovascular disease. Seoul: Jeong Dam;2008. p. 172–4.

2.. Hansson GK. Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, and Coronary artery Disease. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352:16. 1685–95.
crossref pmid

3.. Heo J, Yun SH, Kim HJ. Dae Yeok Dong Uibogam. Gyeong Nam: Donguibogamchulpansa;2005. p. 1549

4.. Bae HH, Kang WC, Park YC. Effectiveness of a Yeonkyopaedok-san Extract in the Treatment of The Common Cold : Results of a Community-based, Double Blind, Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial. KJOMPP. 2008; 22:1. 234–245.

5.. Khwag NG, Kang H, Myung EG, Park SM, Shim BS, Kim SH, et al. Effect of Yeongyupaedog-san on Cytokine Levels of Mouse Th1/Th2 Cells and Anti-allergic Activity in Ovalbumin-sensitized Allergic Inflammation Model. KJOMPP. 2006; 20:4. 844–52.

6.. Jun SK, Kim JH, Kim MH, Shin SH, Yoon HJ, Ko WS, et al. The study of a case about dermatitis exfoliativa by drug eruption. The Korean Oriental Opthalmology&Otolaryngology&Dermatology Society. 2006; 19:1. 145–52.

7.. Yoon SW, Yoon JW, Yoon HJ, Ko WS. Four Cases Report of Ersipelas. KJOMPP. 2003; 17:4. 1120–4.

8.. Lee JH, Cho SE, Woo YM, Kim YH. A Case Report on Cellulitis Treated with Therapeutic Intervention of Oriental Medicine. J Korean Oriental Med. 2001; 22:3. 483–8.

9.. Lee KY, Kim HT, Kim EW, Nam CG, Ryu JH. Effect of Youn-Gyo-Pae-Doc-San on the Release of Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC) in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell. The Korean Oriental Opthalmology&Otolaryngology &Dermatology Society. 2003; 16:3. 82–95.

10.. Kim SB, Kim KJ. Effect of the addition temperament drugs of Yeongyopaedock-san on acne in the state of inflammation. The Korean Oriental Opthalmology&Otolaryngology&Dermatology Society. 2002; 16:1. 50–62.

11.. Jeongukhanuigwadaehak Gongdonggyojaepyeon chanwiwonhoe. Bonchohak. Seoul: Yeongnimsa;2004. p. 8–15.
pmid pmc

12.. Hanbangyangnihak Gyojaepyeonchanwiwonhoe. Hanbangyangnihak. Seoul: Sinilbukseu;2005. p. 113–247.

13.. Bocan TM, Mueller SB, Brown EQ, Lee P, Bocan MJ, Rea T, et al. HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT inhibitors act synergistically to lower plasma cholesterol and limit atherosclerotic lesion development in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. Atherosclerosis. 1998; 139:1. 21–30.
crossref pmid

14.. Lee BJ, Yun SY, Park HW, Park JH, Jo IY, Lee JS, et al. Effects of Concurrent Administration of Hyeolbuchukeo-tang and Aspirin on Atherosclerosis in the ApoE(-/-) Mouse. J Korean Oriental Med. 2011; 32:1. 164–75.

15.. Lee BJ, Oh SC, Kim YC, Lee JS, Kang DH, Lee WK, et al. Effects of Concurrent Administration of Sopunghwalhyeol-tang and Clopidogrel on Atherosclerosis in the ApoE(-/-) Mouse. J Korean Oriental Med. 2010; 31:5. 124–35.

16.. Daehanjindangeomsauihakhoe Pyeon. Jindangeo msauihak(Imsangbyeongnihak). Seoul: Goryeoui hak;2001. p. 416

17.. Clendenen TV, Koenig KL, Arslan AA, Lukanova A, Berrino F, Gu Y, Hallmans G, et al. Factors associated with inflammation markers, a cross-sectional analysis. Cytokine. 2011; 56:3. 769–78.
crossref pmid pmc

18.. An YS, Ahn TW, Kang HJ, Lee YH, Yim YK. The Effect of Herbal-acupuncture with Moutan Cortex Radicis Extract. Journal of Meridian & Acupoint. 2009; 26:1. 85–109.

19.. Kim JG, Park SD, Park WH. Influence of Panax notogingen on the Atherosclerosis Induced by High-cholesterl Feed in Rats. KJOMPP. 2006; 20:5. 1187–95.

20.. Kang JD, Na CS, Youn DH, Cho MR. Effects of acupuncture and low level laser acupuncture therapy (LLLAT) at Yolgyol (LU7), Yogu (LR5) in hyperlipemia rats induced by high rat diet. The Korean Journal of Meridian & Acupoint. 2007; 24:1. 113–29.

21.. Shin SA, Park SD, Choi DY, Park WH. Effect of Aralia contientalis water-extracts on the level of Cholesterol Accumulation in Rat, which were Treated with High-cholesterol Diet. KJOMPP. 2007; 21:1. 104–10.

22.. Na ST, Lee YY, Kim YH, Yang YY, Jung HJ, Kim JE, et al. Effect of Magnolia obovata water-extracts on the atherosclerosis in rat, which were treated with high-cholesterol diet. KJOMPP. 2009; 23:5. 1055–62.

PDF Links  PDF Links
Full text via DOI  Full text via DOI
PubReader  PubReader
Download Citation  Download Citation
Editorial office contact information
3F, #26-27 Gayang-dong, Gangseo-gu Seoul, 157-200 Seoul, Korea
The Society of Korean Medicine
Tel : +82-2-2658-3627   Fax : +82-2-2658-3631   E-mail : skom1953.journal@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Developed in M2PI