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JKM > Volume 44(1); 2023 > Article
Jo, Yoon, Bae, and Kim: Using US Patent Analysis to Monitor the Technological Trend in the Field of Gastrointestinal Microbiome



The purpose of this study was to provide direction for future research in the field of Korean medicine by analyzing microbiome based technologies emerging as a new diagnostic and treatment paradigm.


To achieve the purpose of the study intellectual property data was used. After establishing citation network from registered microbiome-related US patents, citation network was analyzed by knowledge persistence-based main path approach to understanding technological trajectories. Furthermore, community detection algorithms were used to quantitatively identifying specific technological domain in a particular time period.


Results shows that early technologies in livestock industry contribute most to the recent patents. Knowledge in the patents flow through the path of food and beverage technological domain, and finally are inherited to the recent development of diagnosis, treatment and prevention technic.


This study indicate that developing diagnostic tools which can link the composition of microbiome to specific diseases should be given high priority. Researches should lead to novel therapeutic strategies. Specifically, improving reliability of pattern identification and finding effective therapeutic compositions based on principles of Korean medicine is necessary.

Fig. 1
Citation Network Consists of 11,614 Nodes and 45,596 Edges for Microbiome Technological Domain.
Fig. 2
High Persistence Patents in the Citation Network of Microbiome Technological Domain.
Fig. 3
Developmental Technology for Microbiome Technological domain by Knowledge Persistence-based Main Path Analysis.
Fig. 4
Knowledge Flow of Node 1427 (US10226505)
Fig. 5
Knowledge Flow of Node 1687 (US5599795)
Fig. 6
Knowledge Flow of Node 13163 (US8562952)
Fig. 7
Periodic Change in Composition of Technological Domain
Fig. 8
Market Analysis
Fig. 9
Correlation Research Model
Table 1
Search Query and Patent Count
Search Query Patent Count
((gastrointestinal $ws (microb* or microflora or flora)) or (gut $ws (microbi* or microflora or flora)) or (intestinal $ws (microbi* or microflora or flora)) or (Gastric $ws Microbiome) or (enteric $ws bacteria) or (Microbi* $ws Community)) 18,360
(((gastrointestinal $ws (microb* or microflora or flora)) or (gut $ws (microbi* or microflora or flora)) or (intestinal $ws (microbi* or microflora or flora)) or (Gastric $ws Microbiome) or (enteric $ws bacteria) or (Microbi* $ws Community)) and ((medic* $w3 (oriental* or herb* or kampo*)) or (drug $w3 (oriental* or herbal* or kampo* or botanical*)) or “chinese traditional medicine” or “traditional medicine” or “traditional oriental medicine” or “traditional oriental medicine drug” or “natural drug” or “Korean medicine”)) 325
Table 2
International Patent Classification Code Based Analysis.
Class Color IPC Subclass
0 jkm-44-1-38f10.gif A61K Preparations-Medical
A01N Preservation

1 jkm-44-1-38f11.gif C12Q Measuring (Enzymes)
G01N Analysing Materials
G16B Bioinformatics

2 jkm-44-1-38f12.gif A23C Dairy Products
A23K Feeding-Stuffs
A61K Preparations-Medical

3 jkm-44-1-38f13.gif A23C Dairy Products
A23F Coffee Tea
A61F Filters Implantable

4 jkm-44-1-38f14.gif A01N Preservation
A61K Preparations-Medical
C12Q Measuring (Enzymes)

5 jkm-44-1-38f15.gif A01N Preservation
A23C Dairy Products
A23K Feeding-Stuffs
A23L Foods
A61K Preparations-Medical
C12N Micro Organisms

6 jkm-44-1-38f16.gif A23K Feeding-Stuffs
A61K Preparations-Medical
C07K Peptides
C12N Micro Organisms
C12P Enzyme-Using Processes
Table 3
A. Top 10 Patents in the Index of Persistence.
Class Label Patent Persistence Index
2 274 US3953609 335.973
2 645 US4657762 248.0523
2 110 US3326693 230.996
2 61 US2936237 182.841
5 562 US4689226 176.457
4 1687 US5599795 142.635
5 644 US4839281 126.487
4 1427 US5443826 115.635
2 381 US4335107 104.726
5 1691 US5413785 98.364
Table 3
B. 10 Highly Cited Patents.
Class Label Patent Forward Citation
4 3504 US9028841 162
4 1687 US9433651 155
5 13163 US8562952 151
4 1427 US10226505 143
5 3499 US10610548 70
2 381 US10555978 63
4 13169 US8110177 63
5 644 US9289418 63
0 16478 US10058574 59
3 5150 US4657762 59
Table 4
Nodes with Multiple Connections with Other Class.
class Label Patent Persistence Index Forward Citation
4 1427 US10226505 115.635 143
4 1687 US5599795 142.635 155
5 13163 US8562952 42.158 151
Table 5
Part of Microbiome Therapeutic Candidates from Dongui Bogam Tangaekpyeon
Origin Medicine Indication Administration
人部 人屎 天行熱病, 大熱狂走水漬, 取汁 水漬, 取汁
人中黃 天行熱疾, 解中諸毒, 幷惡瘡, 菌蕈毒.

禽部 丹雄鷄糞 治白虎歷節風. 幷付風痛.
雄雀屎 療目痛, 決癰癤. 主痃癖, 疝瘕, 氣塊, 伏梁 凡使細硏, 甘草湯浸一宿, 焙乾用之.
鸕鷓屎 黶痣, 酒齄皰, 及面瘢疵, 與湯火瘡痕, 又主丁瘡. 刮取, 猪脂調付.

獸部 馬屎 主崩漏, 吐下血, 衄血, 金瘡, 止血. 又主陰陽易. 煎湯服, 治暑病最佳.
羊屎 理聤耳. 罨竹木刺. 又主箭鏃不出. 燒灰, 淋取汁沐頭, 令髮長黑, 又生髮.
療身面上熱瘡, 肌瘡.
除肺痿, 心熱, 幷吐血. 補五藏, 利腸胃. 乳腐

盅部 蠶砂 治風痺不仁, 腸鳴. 淨收取, 曬乾, 炒黃色用.

穀部 平胃, 消穀, 止痢. 六月作者良. 陳久者入藥用之, 當炒令香.
飴糖 主補虛乏, 益氣力, 潤五藏, 消痰止嗽. 建中湯用之, 入脾.


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