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JKM > Volume 41(3); 2020 > Article
Lee, Park, Jin, Min, Youn, Suh, and Seo: Analysis of Research Trends on Postpartum-women Healthcare: A Scoping Review

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this scoping review is to describe the research trends of postpartum healthcare for postpartum women, as well as to identify further direction for research in the area of postpartum healthcare.

Methods

This study was conducted sequentially according to the Scoping Review Method referred to as ‘frameworks of Arskey and O’Malley’. We searched for articles published as of May 15th, 2020 in seven Korean databases in order to obtain the data. A key term search strategy was employed, including terms such as “Postpartum period care”, “Postpartum health”, “Postpartum care”, and “Postpartum status” to identify relevant studies.

Results

Eighty-three articles were selected from a total of 259. The research has been undertaken steadily since 1997, particularly in the fields of Nursing and Korean medicine. In terms of study design, survey studies were the majority (48.2%), followed by interventions and experimental papers (32.5%). However, qualitative research areas are lacking. The research topics were largely divided into two categories: postpartum care characteristics and postpartum care interventions. The characteristics of postpartum care were highly connected with care for mental health. Among the postpartum care interventions, the most common employed was Korean medicine intervention.

Conclusion

This study confirms that management of mental health during the postpartum period is necessary. In addition, it is necessary to identify the experiences of postpartum women and the effectiveness of a postpartum care intervention program through the utilization of qualitative research methods. In particular, such research is needed in the field of Korean medicine.

Notes

이 논문은 2020년도 국립중앙의료원 공공보건의료연구소의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구사업임 (과제번호; NMC2020-PR-02)

Fig. 1
PRISMA chart. It presents the process for study selection.
jkm-41-3-32f1.gif
Fig. 2
Number of postpartum healthcare research by published year.
jkm-41-3-32f2.gif
Table 1
Academic Field of Postpartum Healthcare Research
Top category (n=83) Subcategory Count(%)
Medicine and Pharmacy(76) Nursing Science 43 (51.8%)
Korean medicine 26 (31.4%)
Preventive medicine 6 (7.2%)
Obstetrics and gynecology 1 (1.2%)

Interdisciplinary Studies(3) Interdisciplinary Research 2 (2.4%)
Library and Information Science 1 (1.2%)

Marine Agriculture, Fishery(1) Food Science 1 (1.2%)

Engineering(2) Engineering in general 1 (1.2%)
Electrical engineering 1 (1.2%)

Arts and Kinesiology(1) Beauty 1 (1.2%)
Table 2
Characteristics of Study Population
Category Characteristics Count
Postpartum period (n=37) Within 1 weeks 9
Within 2 weeks 4
Within 4 weeks 4
Within 4–6 weeks 3
Within 8 weeks 3
Within 3 months 3
Within 6 months 3
Etc.* 8

Delivery experience (n=14) Primipara 12
Multipara 2

Postpartum Women Condition No Complications/No health problems 35

Infant Condition No Complications/No health problems 30

Geographic region (n=52) Seoul 8
Gyeonggi-do 8
Incheon 3
Gangwon-do 1
Chungcheongbuk-do 3
Chungcheongnam-do 1
Jeollabuk-do Jeonju 2
Jeollanam-do Gwangju 3
Gyeongsangbuk-do Andong 1
Unknown 1
Gyeongsangnam-do Gimhae 1
Busan 2
unknown 1
Jeju 1
Unspecific 16

Allocated location (n=83) Hospital or Clinic 38
Breast-feeding management facility 2
Postpartum care center 11
Public Health center 4
Multicultural Family Support Center 3
Korean medicine Hospital 18
Korean medicine Postpartum care center 4
Korean language classes for immigrant women 1
Midwifery center 1
Internet 1

* One paper is 6 to 10 weeks and four papers is within 2 years, two papers is within 5 years, one paper is 6 weeks to 10 years.

† This is total number of region. Total number of research is 43 papers. Multiple region were included.

‡ This is total number of location. Total number of research is 71 papers. Multiple location were included.

Table 3
Published Year, Population and Design of Studies Related to Postpartum Healthcare
Category Characteristics Sub total Academic Field Total (%)

Nursing Korean medicine Preventive medicine Etc.
Published year 1997–2000 8 8 0 0 0 8 (9.6%)
2001–2005 18 10 6 1 1 18 (21.7%)
2006–2010 17 6 8 2 1 17 (20.5%)
2011–2015 24 14 6 1 3 24 (28.9%)
2016–2019 16 5 6 2 3 16 (19.3%)
Sub total 83 43 26 6 8 83

Study design Survey study Descriptive survey 27 13 9 3 2
Correlation survey 12 7 3 2 0 40(48.2%)
Exploratory survey 1 1 0 0 0

Case study 2 0 2 0 0 2 (2.4%)
Interventional/Experimental study 28 14 10 1 3 28 (33.7%)
Qualitative study 5 4 0 0 1 5 (6.0%)
Methodological study 3 2 0 0 1 3 (3.6%)
Literature review 5 2 2 0 1 5 (6.0%)
Sub total 83 43 26 6 8 83
Table 4
Classification of Study Topics
Top category(n) Subcategory(n) Main keywords
Postpartum care characteristic (37) Postpartum experience(4) Personal care method, Married immigrant women
Influencing factors(9) Postpartum care performance, Functional status, Adaptation, Postpartum care service utilization, Postpartum Care Facility, Postpartum Caretaker
Mental health(15) Fatigue, Postpartum depression, Quality of life, sleep, Postpartum Stress, Children Stress, Sasang constitution, Preparation, Self-efficacy, Body image, Social support
Physical health (3) Postpartum symptoms, Sanhupung
Concept analysis (1) Sanhujori, Tool
Postpartum care recognition(3) Postpartum care performance, Postpartum period, Weight gain
Breast feeding (2) Community health service, Infant formula, Rooming-in care, Self-efficacy
Postpartum care intervention (46) Nursing(2) Home Health Care, Health education
Korean medicine(19) Postpartum symptoms-Sanhupung, Postpartum depression, Postpartum weight retention, Edema, Sweating, Anemia, Duration of lochia, Blood Stasis, Low back pain, Herbal medicine, Diet therapies, Breast-feeding, Satisfaction and recognition
Breast feeding education (2) Education, Perception, Type
General healthcare service (8) Postpartum Care Facility, Postpartum Caretaker, Improving maternal adaptation, Postpartum knowledge, Postpartum behavior, Postpartum recovery, Quality of life, Immigration
Mental healthcare service (5) Postpartum Depression, Ear acupressure, Exercise, Foot Massage, Music therapy
Physical healthcare service (4) Body composition, prevent Incontinence, Exercise, Physical fitness, Postpartum weight retention
Development (6) Protocol, Evaluation, Nursing needs
Table 5
Variables Related to Postpartum Healthcare
Category Variables (n)
Postpartum care characteristic
  • ▶ Satisfaction(1)

    • - Postpartum care -Maternal

    • - Korean medicine treatment

  • ▶ Postpartum care importance(2)

  • ▶ Postpartum functional status(1)

  • ▶ Postpartum health status (9)

  • ▶ Health promoting behaviors(1)

  • ▶ Postpartum care performance(1)

  • ▶ Postpartum care precautions(1)

  • ▶ Postpartum adaptation(1)

  • ▶ Emotional status (2)

  • ▶ Quality of life(3)

  • ▶ Social support(4)

  • ▶ Family function

  • ▶ Self-efficacy(2)

  • ▶ Parenting stress(4)

  • ▶ Postpartum fatigue(7)

  • ▶ Postpartum depression(15)

  • ▶ Sleep quality(3)

  • ▶ Infant characteristics(2)

  • ▶ Maternal

    • - Role(1) - Attachment(1)

    • - Identity(1)

  • ▶ Breast-feeding

    • - education(1) - Acting(1)

    • - Advantages -Method(6)

    • - Decision time/Motivation(1)

    • - Difficulty(2)

  • ▶ Sasang Constitution Diagnosis(1)

  • ▶ General characteristics(12) (Age, Education, Religion, Job, Income, Family composition, Period of Marriage, Residence, Marriage satisfaction, Living member)

  • ▶ Delivery & Infant characteristics(18) (Obstetric history, Pregnancy planning, Delivery method, Gestation period, Assisted reproductive, Postpartum period, Infant gender, Infant health status)

  • ▶ Weight change(1)

  • ▶ Postpartum care method(3)

  • ▶ Postpartum care experience(3)

  • ▶ Postpartum Complications(2)

  • ▶ Use of Postpartum care center(2)

  • ▶ Prenatal nursing agency(1)

  • ▶ Postpartum recognition(2)

  • ▶ Postpartum difficulty(1)

  • ▶ Prenatal education(3)

  • ▶ Having postpartum helper(2)

  • ▶ Parenting helper(4)

  • ▶ Use of Breast-feeding facility(1)

  • ▶ Period of postpartum care(2)

  • ▶ Herbal medicine experience(1)

  • ▶ Reason for use of postpartum care center(1)

  • ▶ Reason for using of Korean medicine hospital(1)

Postpartum care intervention
  • ▷ Postpartum care nursing education(2)

  • ▷ Breast-feeding education(2)

  • ▷ Postpartum care program(3)

  • ▷ Postpartum Depression Intervention Program

  • ▷ Programs for improving maternal adaptation(1)

  • ▷ Use of Postpartum Care Facility(4)

  • ▷ Postpartum care application(1)

  • ▷ Abdominal massage(1)

  • ▷ Foot massage(1)

  • ▷ Incontinence Prevention Program(1)

  • ▷ Postpartum exercise program(2)

  • ▷ Functional food(1)

  • ▷ Music therapy(1)

  • ▷ Ear acupressure(1)

  • ▷ Diet therapies(1)

  • ▷ Korean medicine postpartum program(18)

    • - Herbal medicine

    • - Saenghwa-tang-gamibang(8)

    • - Gungguijohyeol-eum-gamibang

    • - Omibaekchul-san

    • - Bojungikgi-tang

  • ▷ Acupuncture ▷Cupping

  • ▷Moxibustion ▷ Physical therapy

  • ▷Pharmacopuncture

Table 6
Research Map by Topics
Top category(n) Subcategory(n) Study design(n) Published year(n) Allocated location(n)
Postpartum care characteristic (37) Postpartum experience(4) Qualitative study(4) 1998, 2014, 2015, 2016 Multicultural Family Support Center(1), Korean language classes for immigrant women(1), Unspecific(2)
Influencing factors(9) Descriptive survey(3)
Correlation survey(5)
Methodological study (1)
1998(2), 1999, 2005, 2007, 2013. 2017(2), 2019 Hospital(7), Public Health Center(2), Multicultural Family Support Center(2), Midwifery center(1), Unspecific(2)
Mental health(15) Descriptive survey(9)
Correlation survey(5)
Case-control study(1)
2000, 2001(2), 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009(2), 2010, 2011, 2013(2), 2014, 2015, 2018 Hospital (13), Public Health Center(1), Postpartum care center(1). Breast-feeding management facility(1), Korean medicine hospital(2)
Physical health (3) Descriptive survey(2)
Retrospective review(1)
2001, 2017, 2018 Hospital(2), Korean medicine hospital(1)
Concept analysis (1) Methodological study(1) 2001 N/A(1)
Postpartum care recognition(3) Descriptive survey(3) 2001(2), 2008(1) Hospital(1), Public Health Center(1), Korean medicine postpartum care center(1),
Breast feeding (2) Descriptive survey(2) 2010, 2011 Hospital(1), Korean medicine hospital(1), Breast-feeding management facility(1), Postpartum care center(1)
Postpartum care intervention (46) Nursing(2) Single-group before-and-after study(1), Quasi-experimental trial(1) 2000, 2014 Hospital(1), Unspecific(1)
Korean medicine(19) Retrospective review (4)
Prospective observation study(1)
Single-group before-and-after study(3)
Controlled before-and-after study(3)
Literature review(2)
Descriptive survey(3)
Correlation survey(1)
Case study(2)
2001, 2002(2), 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010(3), 2011, 2012, 2013(3), 2015, 2017, 2018(2), 2019 Korean medicine hospital(14), Korean Medicine Postpartum care center(3), N/A(2)
Breast feeding education (2) Quasi-experimental trial(2) 2011, 2012 Hospital(1), Postpartum care center(1)
General healthcare service (8) Quasi-experimental trial(3), Descriptive survey(2), Correlation survey(1)
Literature review(1)
Qualitative study(1)
2002, 2006, 2008, 2013(2), 2015, 2017(2) Hospital(3), Postpartum care center(4), Internet(1), Unspecific(1)
Mental healthcare service (5) Quasi-experimental trial(4)
Literature review(1)
2019(2), 2011, 2015, 2004 Hospital(2), Postpartum care center(2), N/A(1)
Physical healthcare service (4) Quasi-experimental trial(2)
Controlled before-and-after study(2)
2003, 2004, 2009, 2011 Hospital(3), Postpartum care center(2)
Development (6) Methodological study (1)
Descriptive survey(3)
Exploratory survey(1)
Literature review(1)
1997, 1998, 2001(2), 2003, 2018 Hospital(4), N/A(2)

Appendices

Appendix 1

List of included papers

References

1 The society of Korean medicine obstetrics and gynecology. Oriental obstetrics & gynecology. 1st ed. Seoul:Euiseongdang. 2012. p. 691–2. p. 765–70. p. 798


2 Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. Prenatal and Postnatal Care and Its Policy Implications. Health and welfare policy forum. 2016; 236:0. 37–50.


3 Lee TK. A Literary Study of the Postpartum Care. The Journal of Oriental Gynecology. 2001; 14:1. 209–28.


4 The society of Korean medicine obstetrics and gynecology. Oriental obstetrics & gynecology. 3rd ed. Seoul: Euiseongdang;2016. p. 765–7.


5 Bae GM, Lee IS. The Study to Investigate the Recognition on Postpartum Symptom among Korean, Korean resident in America and American. The Journal of Oriental Gynecology. 2010; 23:2. 131–44.


6 Ministry of Health and Welfare. The 2017’ Casebook on Maternity Support Policy of Korea Local Governments. Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare;2017. p. 332p. 334p. 337p. 344–5.


7 Arksey H, O’malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005; 8:1. 19–32.


8 Thomas A, Lubarsky S, Durning SJ, Young ME. Knowledge syntheses in medical education: demystifying scoping reviews. Acad Med. 2017; 92:2. 161–166.


9 Zaza S, Wright-De Agüero LK, Briss PA, Truman BI, Hopkins DP, Hennessy MH, et al. Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18:1. 44–74.


10 Ahn SH. Canonical Correlation between Korean Traditional Postpartum Care Performance and Postpartum Health Status. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2005; 35:1. 37–46.


11 Yoo EK. A Study on functional Status after Childbirth under the Sanhujori. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 1999; 5:3. 410–419.


12 Kim TK, Yoo EK. A Correlational Study on the level of Importance & performance of postpartal Care and its Relationship with Women’s Health Status. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 298. 4:2. 145–61.


13 Cho EJ. Subjective Sleep Quality in Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers During the Late Postpartum Period. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2009; 15:2. 108–20.


14 Song JE. Factors Related to the Childcare Stress among Primiparous Women who delivered at Women’s Health Hospitals. J Korean Soc Matern Child Health. 2009; 13:2. 158–70.


15 Lee JY, Kim HY. Development and Validation of a Postpartum Care Mobile Application for First-time Mothers. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2017; 23:3. 210–20.


16 Koh HJ, Lim KH. A Comparison of the Educational Needs of the Mothers’ for the Infant Care Between Primipara and Multipara. Child Health Nurs Res. 2002; 8:2. 217–28.


17 Kim LH, Kwon BY, Kim SY. A Clinical Study on the Social Environmental Factors of Postpartum blues and depression. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2001; 12:2. 27–35.


18 Kim ME, Hur MH. Sleep Quality, Fatigue, and Postpartum Depression of Mother at Six Months after Delivery. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2014; 20:4. 266–76.


19 Jung MH, Kim JI. A Study on the Relationship among Prenatal Emotional Status, Preparation for Delivery, Postpartum Social Support and Postpartum Blues. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2005; 11:1. 38–45.


20 Lee JW, Eo YS, Moon EH. Effects of Self Efficacy, Body Image and Family Support on Postpartum Depression in Early Postpartum Mothers. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. 2015; 16:6. 4 011–20.


21 Lee SO, Yeo JH, Ahn SH, Lee HS, Yang HJ, Han MJ. Postpartum depressive score and related factors pre-and post-delivery. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2010; 16:1. 29–36.


22 Bak JY, Park JK, Park KY, Kim TH. A Study about the Satisfaction of Oriental Medical Postpartum Care. The Journal of Oriental Gynecology. 2009; 22:4. 173–86.


23 Choi SW, Kim JY. Effect of Oriental Postpartum Management on the Hematology and Blood Chemistry in Puerperium Maternity. J Korean Oriental Med. 2001; 22:4. 121–30.


24 Moon SH, Kim JY. The Effect of the Oriental Postpartum Care in Hemoglobin Changes of Maternity. J Korean Oriental Med. 2002; 22:4. 112–19.


25 Park SM, Yoo DY. A Clinical Study on Three Cases of Anemia in Postpartum Women Treated by Gamisaengwha-tang with Deer Antler. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 24:3. 212–21.


26 Lee EH. Short-term Clinical Observation of the Early Postpartum Low Back Pain in the Korean Medical Hospital. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 25:2. 174–84.


27 Park KY, Lee AY, Ban JH, Park JK, Lee EH. Effects of Herbal Medicine on Breast-feeding - Analysis of Marker Substances in Saenghwa-tang by HPLC and LC/MS/MS. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 26:4. 48–65.


28 Kim PW, Kim AN, Jang HC, LEE EH. A Prospective Observational Study on Symptoms of the Postpartum Women with Korean Medicine Treatment during Six Weeks after Childbirth. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 30:4. 111–34.


29 Lee AY, Park GY, Lee EH. Changes of Depression and Fatigue Level According to Sasang Constitution in Early Postpartum Women. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 26:2. 33–45.


30 Hwang YS, Park NC, Lee JW, Yang HR, Park SH, Hwang DS, et al. Analysis on Outpatients with Postpartum Disease at the Korean Gynecology Clinic of Traditional Korean Medicine Hospital. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 31:3. 61–78.


31 Choi SY, Kim CW, Kim NH, Park KS, Hwang DS, Lee JM, et al. A Study on the Changes of Early Puerperium Symptoms and Blood Stasis Index of Women Taking Gungguijohyeol-eum-gamibang. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 31:1. 1–19.


32 Kim ES, Lee JM, Lee CH, Cho JH, Jang JB, Lee KS. A Case Report of Postpartum Disease Induced by Inadequate Postpartum Care. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 20:3. 238–45.


33 Kim GH, Lee JH, Cho HB, Choi CM, Kim SB. A Study on the Effect of Omibaekchul-san on Postpartum Edema-Comparison with Saenghwa-tang. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 28:2. 91–108.


34 Kim JH, Park MK, Park MH. Effects of a Postpartum Care Program for Postpartum Women on Postpartum Activity and Postpartum Discomfort in Primiparous Women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2008; 14:1. 36–43.


35 Park MK, Lee YS. Effects of a Postpartum Care Program on the Knowledge and Behavior of Postpartum Recovery in Primiparous Women. J Korean Soc Matern Child Health. 2006; 11:2. 127–36.


36 Song JE, Ahn JA. Effect of Intervention Programs for Improving Maternal Adaptation in Korea: Systematic Review. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2013; 19:3. 129–41.


37 Bang KS, Huh BY, Kwon MK. The Effect of a Postpartum Nursing Intervention Program for Immigrant Mothers. Child Health Nurs Res. 2014; 20:1. 11–19.


38 Shin HS, Kim SH, Kwon SH. The Effects of Education on Primiparas’ Postpartal care. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2000; 6:1. 34–45.


39 Kim JK, Choi HM, Ryu EJ. Postnatal Breast-Feeding Knowledge, Techniques and Rates of First-Time Mothers Depending on a Prenatal Breast-Feeding Education Method. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Edu. 2011; 17:1. 90–99.


40 Yun SE, LEE HK. Effects of Breast-feeding Adaptation, Attitude and Practice of Primipara Depending on Method of Postpartum Breast-feeding Education. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2012; 18:2. 75–84.


41 Kim DH, Ahn HS. The Effect of Abdominal Massage Six Months Postpartum on Body Composition. Journal of the Korean Society of Cosmetology. 2011; 17:6. 1048–58.


42 Choi MS, Lee EJ. Effects of Foot-Reflexology Massage on Fatigue, Stress and Postpartum Depression in Postpartum Women. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2015; 45:4. 587–94.


43 Lee SO. Effects of Postpartum Exercise on Pelvic Muscle Contraction, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness of the Postpartum Mother. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2004; 10:3. 244–51.


44 Lee SO, Kim MO, Ahn SH, Cho YR. Effects of Postpartum Exercise on Mental Health. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2004; 10:1. 15–22.


45 Jeong NO. Effects of an Incontinence Prevention Program on Postpartum Women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2009; 15:3. 177–85.


46 Kim SH, Sung KM. The Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Depression and Fatigue among Early Postpartum Mothers. J East-West Nurs Res. 2019; 25:2. 91–102.


47 Yun SE, Lee SO, Lee HK. Effects of Music Therapy on Postpartum Stress and Maternal Attachment of Puerperal Women. Korean Parent Child Health J. 2011; 14:2. 45–54.


48 Park YC, Song JY, Choe BK, Park JH, Oh DJ, Lim OG, et al. Somatization and Poor Adherence to ‘Doing the Month’ Practices in Korean Women with Somatoform Disorders. Korean J Psychosomatic Med. 2008; 16:2. 103–11.


49 Kim MJ, Kang KJ. Effects of Sanhujori and Menopausal Adaptation on Health-related QOL in Middle-aged Women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2014; 20:1. 62–71.


50 Yoo EK, Lee SH, Kim MH. A Study on the Relationship between the Experience of Sanhujori, the Traditional Postpartal Care in Korea and Present Health Status of Chronic Arthritis Female Patient. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 1998; 4:2. 217–30.


Appendix 2

Paper List about Study Topics (This is reference number by appendix1)

  1. Postpartum care characteristic

    • 1) Postpartum experience(4): 1–4.

    • 2) Influencing factors(9): 5–13.

    • 3) Mental health(15): 14–28.

    • 4) Physical health (3): 29–31.

    • 5) Concept analysis (1): 32.

    • 6) Postpartum care recognition(3): 33–35.

    • 7) Breast feeding (2): 36,37.

  2. Postpartum care invention

    • 1) Nursing(2): 38,39.

    • 2) Korean medicine(19): 40–58.

    • 3) Breast feeding education (2): 59,60.

    • 4) General healthcare service (8): 61–68.

    • 5) Mental healthcare service (5): 69–73.

    • 6) Physical healthcare service (4): 74–77.

    • 7) Development (6): 78–83.

참고문헌

1 The society of Korean medicine obstetrics and gynecology. Oriental obstetrics & gynecology. 1st ed. Seoul:Euiseongdang. 2012. p. 691–2. p. 765–70. p. 798


2 Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. Prenatal and Postnatal Care and Its Policy Implications. Health and welfare policy forum. 2016; 236:0. 37–50.


3 Lee TK. A Literary Study of the Postpartum Care. The Journal of Oriental Gynecology. 2001; 14:1. 209–28.


4 The society of Korean medicine obstetrics and gynecology. Oriental obstetrics & gynecology. 3rd ed. Seoul: Euiseongdang;2016. p. 765–7.


5 Bae GM, Lee IS. The Study to Investigate the Recognition on Postpartum Symptom among Korean, Korean resident in America and American. The Journal of Oriental Gynecology. 2010; 23:2. 131–44.


6 Ministry of Health and Welfare. The 2017’ Casebook on Maternity Support Policy of Korea Local Governments. Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare;2017. p. 332p. 334p. 337p. 344–5.


7 Arksey H, O’malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005; 8:1. 19–32.
crossref

8 Thomas A, Lubarsky S, Durning SJ, Young ME. Knowledge syntheses in medical education: demystifying scoping reviews. Acad Med. 2017; 92:2. 161–166.
crossref pmid

9 Zaza S, Wright-De Agüero LK, Briss PA, Truman BI, Hopkins DP, Hennessy MH, et al. Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18:1. 44–74.
crossref pmid

10 Ahn SH. Canonical Correlation between Korean Traditional Postpartum Care Performance and Postpartum Health Status. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2005; 35:1. 37–46.
crossref

11 Yoo EK. A Study on functional Status after Childbirth under the Sanhujori. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 1999; 5:3. 410–419.


12 Kim TK, Yoo EK. A Correlational Study on the level of Importance & performance of postpartal Care and its Relationship with Women’s Health Status. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 298. 4:2. 145–61.


13 Cho EJ. Subjective Sleep Quality in Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers During the Late Postpartum Period. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2009; 15:2. 108–20.
crossref

14 Song JE. Factors Related to the Childcare Stress among Primiparous Women who delivered at Women’s Health Hospitals. J Korean Soc Matern Child Health. 2009; 13:2. 158–70.
crossref

15 Lee JY, Kim HY. Development and Validation of a Postpartum Care Mobile Application for First-time Mothers. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2017; 23:3. 210–20.
crossref

16 Koh HJ, Lim KH. A Comparison of the Educational Needs of the Mothers’ for the Infant Care Between Primipara and Multipara. Child Health Nurs Res. 2002; 8:2. 217–28.


17 Kim LH, Kwon BY, Kim SY. A Clinical Study on the Social Environmental Factors of Postpartum blues and depression. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2001; 12:2. 27–35.


18 Kim ME, Hur MH. Sleep Quality, Fatigue, and Postpartum Depression of Mother at Six Months after Delivery. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2014; 20:4. 266–76.
crossref

19 Jung MH, Kim JI. A Study on the Relationship among Prenatal Emotional Status, Preparation for Delivery, Postpartum Social Support and Postpartum Blues. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2005; 11:1. 38–45.
crossref

20 Lee JW, Eo YS, Moon EH. Effects of Self Efficacy, Body Image and Family Support on Postpartum Depression in Early Postpartum Mothers. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. 2015; 16:6. 4 011–20.
crossref

21 Lee SO, Yeo JH, Ahn SH, Lee HS, Yang HJ, Han MJ. Postpartum depressive score and related factors pre-and post-delivery. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2010; 16:1. 29–36.
crossref

22 Bak JY, Park JK, Park KY, Kim TH. A Study about the Satisfaction of Oriental Medical Postpartum Care. The Journal of Oriental Gynecology. 2009; 22:4. 173–86.


23 Choi SW, Kim JY. Effect of Oriental Postpartum Management on the Hematology and Blood Chemistry in Puerperium Maternity. J Korean Oriental Med. 2001; 22:4. 121–30.


24 Moon SH, Kim JY. The Effect of the Oriental Postpartum Care in Hemoglobin Changes of Maternity. J Korean Oriental Med. 2002; 22:4. 112–19.


25 Park SM, Yoo DY. A Clinical Study on Three Cases of Anemia in Postpartum Women Treated by Gamisaengwha-tang with Deer Antler. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 24:3. 212–21.


26 Lee EH. Short-term Clinical Observation of the Early Postpartum Low Back Pain in the Korean Medical Hospital. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 25:2. 174–84.


27 Park KY, Lee AY, Ban JH, Park JK, Lee EH. Effects of Herbal Medicine on Breast-feeding - Analysis of Marker Substances in Saenghwa-tang by HPLC and LC/MS/MS. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 26:4. 48–65.
crossref

28 Kim PW, Kim AN, Jang HC, LEE EH. A Prospective Observational Study on Symptoms of the Postpartum Women with Korean Medicine Treatment during Six Weeks after Childbirth. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 30:4. 111–34.


29 Lee AY, Park GY, Lee EH. Changes of Depression and Fatigue Level According to Sasang Constitution in Early Postpartum Women. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 26:2. 33–45.
crossref

30 Hwang YS, Park NC, Lee JW, Yang HR, Park SH, Hwang DS, et al. Analysis on Outpatients with Postpartum Disease at the Korean Gynecology Clinic of Traditional Korean Medicine Hospital. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 31:3. 61–78.


31 Choi SY, Kim CW, Kim NH, Park KS, Hwang DS, Lee JM, et al. A Study on the Changes of Early Puerperium Symptoms and Blood Stasis Index of Women Taking Gungguijohyeol-eum-gamibang. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 31:1. 1–19.


32 Kim ES, Lee JM, Lee CH, Cho JH, Jang JB, Lee KS. A Case Report of Postpartum Disease Induced by Inadequate Postpartum Care. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 20:3. 238–45.


33 Kim GH, Lee JH, Cho HB, Choi CM, Kim SB. A Study on the Effect of Omibaekchul-san on Postpartum Edema-Comparison with Saenghwa-tang. J Korean Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 28:2. 91–108.
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34 Kim JH, Park MK, Park MH. Effects of a Postpartum Care Program for Postpartum Women on Postpartum Activity and Postpartum Discomfort in Primiparous Women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2008; 14:1. 36–43.
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35 Park MK, Lee YS. Effects of a Postpartum Care Program on the Knowledge and Behavior of Postpartum Recovery in Primiparous Women. J Korean Soc Matern Child Health. 2006; 11:2. 127–36.


36 Song JE, Ahn JA. Effect of Intervention Programs for Improving Maternal Adaptation in Korea: Systematic Review. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2013; 19:3. 129–41.
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37 Bang KS, Huh BY, Kwon MK. The Effect of a Postpartum Nursing Intervention Program for Immigrant Mothers. Child Health Nurs Res. 2014; 20:1. 11–19.
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38 Shin HS, Kim SH, Kwon SH. The Effects of Education on Primiparas’ Postpartal care. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2000; 6:1. 34–45.


39 Kim JK, Choi HM, Ryu EJ. Postnatal Breast-Feeding Knowledge, Techniques and Rates of First-Time Mothers Depending on a Prenatal Breast-Feeding Education Method. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Edu. 2011; 17:1. 90–99.
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40 Yun SE, LEE HK. Effects of Breast-feeding Adaptation, Attitude and Practice of Primipara Depending on Method of Postpartum Breast-feeding Education. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2012; 18:2. 75–84.
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41 Kim DH, Ahn HS. The Effect of Abdominal Massage Six Months Postpartum on Body Composition. Journal of the Korean Society of Cosmetology. 2011; 17:6. 1048–58.


42 Choi MS, Lee EJ. Effects of Foot-Reflexology Massage on Fatigue, Stress and Postpartum Depression in Postpartum Women. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2015; 45:4. 587–94.
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43 Lee SO. Effects of Postpartum Exercise on Pelvic Muscle Contraction, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness of the Postpartum Mother. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2004; 10:3. 244–51.
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44 Lee SO, Kim MO, Ahn SH, Cho YR. Effects of Postpartum Exercise on Mental Health. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2004; 10:1. 15–22.
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45 Jeong NO. Effects of an Incontinence Prevention Program on Postpartum Women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2009; 15:3. 177–85.
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46 Kim SH, Sung KM. The Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Depression and Fatigue among Early Postpartum Mothers. J East-West Nurs Res. 2019; 25:2. 91–102.


47 Yun SE, Lee SO, Lee HK. Effects of Music Therapy on Postpartum Stress and Maternal Attachment of Puerperal Women. Korean Parent Child Health J. 2011; 14:2. 45–54.


48 Park YC, Song JY, Choe BK, Park JH, Oh DJ, Lim OG, et al. Somatization and Poor Adherence to ‘Doing the Month’ Practices in Korean Women with Somatoform Disorders. Korean J Psychosomatic Med. 2008; 16:2. 103–11.


49 Kim MJ, Kang KJ. Effects of Sanhujori and Menopausal Adaptation on Health-related QOL in Middle-aged Women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2014; 20:1. 62–71.
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50 Yoo EK, Lee SH, Kim MH. A Study on the Relationship between the Experience of Sanhujori, the Traditional Postpartal Care in Korea and Present Health Status of Chronic Arthritis Female Patient. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 1998; 4:2. 217–30.


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