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JKM > Volume 40(2); 2019 > Article
Jung, Lee, and Hwang: A Comparative Study on the Tongue Diagnosis between Korean medicine and Ayurveda

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze Tongue Diagnosis of Korean medicine with that of Ayurveda.

Methods

In this article, first we introduced concept of Tongue Diagnosis based on physiological view. Further, we also reviewed published works including books and articles. Then, we reviewed Ayurveda to find similar concepts to Vicera Assignment on Tongue, and analyzed the comparison between the relevant contents of Korean medicine and Ayurveda.

Results

In Ayurveda, they divided vicera into two part (right and left) and some elements of vicera were assigned to either side of divided tongue. In Korean medicine, a tongue is divide into three parts of Sangcho(上焦, Shang Jiao), Jungcho(中焦, Zhong Jiao) and Hacho(下焦, Xia Jaio) ; similarly, in Ayurveda, they divide a tongue into three regions of VATA, PITTA, KAPHA.

Conclusion

It can be inferred from the relationship between portions of a tongue and vicera of a body that Korean medicine and Ayurveda have a close relationship.

Acknowledgement

A Ram Jung and Hye-Yoon Lee contributed equally to this study.
This work was supported by a 2-year Research Grant of Pusan National University.

Fig. 1
A correlation of tongue with viscera and bowels.
jkm-40-2-63f1.gif
Fig. 2
A correlation oftongue with three parts of body.
jkm-40-2-63f2.gif
Table 1
Comparative Clinical Significance in Korean medicine and Ayurveda
Tongue Feature Korean medicine21,22) Ayurveda23)
Color
 Pale Dual deficiency of qi & blood, cold pattern Low prana
 Red heat pattern High pitta
 Purple cold-heat complex pattern, blood stasis High pitta
 Blue cold pattern, blood stasis Agni & Pitta out of balance, kapha is high
Form of Tongue Body
 Contracted Heart-blood deficiency, internal heat affecting the tissues and muscles Pitta & Agni disturbance
 Crooked Liver wind Vata high
 Flaccid Yin damage, blood deficiency Vata is high
 Swollen Cold & heat dampness, phlegm over flowing Kapha is out of balance
 Protruding Phlegm, toxins & Heat in the heart Kapha is imbalance, Pitta is in excess
 Thin Exterior symptom complex in warm disease Pitta is slightly high, kapha is affected
 Thick Interior-symptom complex; excess heat, cold & phlegm Pitta is high, kapha is high
Tongue Fur
 Moist Mild disorders that have not affected body fluids Kapha is slightly high
 Dry High heat consuming body fluids Pitta & Agni are high
 Greasy/Splippery Dampness and disturbed qi in stomach, spleen or lungs Kapha is high
 White cold pattern, exterior pattern Kapha is high
 Yellowish Excess heat affecting the whole digestive system, interior pattern Pitta is high and out of balance
 Grayish Dark Warm diseases, interior symptoms affecting internal organs Kapha is high with Agni imbalance
 Black Interior-symptom complex; heat invading blood level Vata, Pitta & Kapha disturbed and out of balance
Table 2
The attributes and properties of VATA, PITTA, KAPHA12,23)
VATA PITTA KAPHA
Basic elements air, ether fire, water water, earth
Biological humors cold, light, mobile, dry, hard, rough hot, slightly wet, light, sharp, flowing cold, wet, heavy, dull, gross, static
Attributes irregular, rarefied intense, fluid, liquid viscos, dense, smooth
Climatic factor Wind & cold-dryness Heat & humidity Cold-dampness
Effects of unbalance or excess deficiency or irregularity of the digestive juices diarrhea, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, irritable bowels digestions are sluggish and unregulated
Anxiety, fatigue, worry spiritually lost, constantly seeking dry in all tissue and organs
dry cough, shortness of breath dry skin, graying or balding hair respiratory system excess amounts of mucous
loss of enthusiasm, loss of energy character is anxious, angry, irritable character is jealous, intolerant

참고문헌

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