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JKM > Volume 39(2); 2018 > Article
Choi, Park, Kim, and Park: A Pilot Study on the Association between Iris parameters and 8 Constitutional Medicine: Retrospective Chart Review

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of some iris parameters in predicting the 8 constitution

Methods

From November 2012 to February 2018, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 patients who were visited to the Korean Oriental Clinic. We conducted a stepwise binary logistic regression analysis to find the association between Iris parameters and 8 constitutional Medicine.

Results

Automic Nerve Wreath Ration (ANWR) was larger and toxic radii was longer in Earth and Wood constitutions than Metal and water constitution. ANWR was larger and pupil are ratio(PAR) was smaller in Wood constitutions than Earth constitutions. And others did not show significant results.

Conclusions

This study suggests that the relationship between some of the iris parameters and 8 constitution was significant, but more accurate follow-up study is needed.

Fig. 1
Flow chart of retrospective chart review for the iris parameters and the relationships between iris parameters and Eight Constitution Medicine Type. ANWAR: autonomic nerve wreath area ratio, PAR: pupil area ratio.
jkm-39-2-56f1.gif
Fig. 2
Video iriscope
jkm-39-2-56f2.gif
Fig. 3
Definitions of ANWAR and PAR. ANWAR: autonomic nerve wreath area ratio, PAR: pupil area ratio. “A” indicates the length of the Autonomic Nerve Wreath(ANW). “B” indicates the length of the iris, including the ANW. “C” indicates the total length of the eye, consisting of the iris and pupil. “D” indicates the length of the pupil. In this study, ANWAR was defined as π/π, and PAR was defined as π/π,
jkm-39-2-56f3.gif
Fig. 4
Five iridological markers used in grading or calculating the six iris parameters. A: lacunae, B: pigment dot, C: nerve rings, D: Autonomic Nerve Wreath(ANW), E: toxic radii.
jkm-39-2-56f4.gif
Fig. 5
The blood vessels of the iris
jkm-39-2-56f5.gif
Table 1
Comparison of Demographic Characteristics According to CS and HS
scale Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4
Iris Density Absence of lacuna 1–3 lacunas 4–6 lacunas More than seven lacunas
Pigment Absence of pigment One pigment More than two pigments
Nerve Ring Circular arc of the nerve ring less than one-fourth the circular arc of the outer iris circumference Circular arc of the nerve ring ranging from one-fourth to four-fifths the circular arc of the outer iris circumference Length of the Circular arc of the nerve ring more than four-fifths the circular arc of the outer iris circumference
Toxic Radii Length of the toxic radii less than one-fifth the of the total radius of the eye Length of the toxic radii ranging from one-fifth to one-third the length of the total radius of the eye Length of the toxic radii ranging more than one-third the length of the total radius of the eye

Among the four iris parameters, pigment, nerve ring, and toxic radii were graded on a three-point scale, and iris density was graded on a four-point scale

Table 2
Binary Logistic Regression of Iris and 8 constitution
step B S.E, Wals Sig. Exp(B) 95% C.I. for EXP(B)

Lower Upper
1st analysis ANWR(ratio) 6.944 2.163 10.310 .001 1036.767 14.958 71861.469
Toxic radii(grade) .607 .228 7.101 .008 1.835 1.174 2.869
Constant −2.170 .591 13.466 .000 .114

2nd analysis Lacunae(grade) −.370 .205 3.272 .070 .690 .462 1.031
Toxic radii(grade) .820 .459 3.189 .074 2.270 .923 5.584
Constant −.001 .790 .000 .999 .999

3rd analysis ANWR(ratio) 13.528 4.141 10.674 .001 750503.544 224.259 2.512E9
PAR(ratio) −17.961 9.957 3.254 .071 .000 .000 4.730
Constant −1.035 1.188 .759 .384 .355

SE:standard error, ANWR:autonomic nerve wreath ratio, PAR:pupil area ratio

*** p<0.001,

** p<0.01

Table 3
Model summary. R square.
step −2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R square Nagelkerke R square
1 217.289a .102 .136
2 108.966a .085 .114
3 95.926a .217 .292
Table 4
Hosmer and Lemeshow Test
step Chi-square df Sig.
1 7.440 8 .490
2 7.052 4 .133
3 12.138 8 .145

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