Ahn, Lee, Kwak, Kim, and Choi: The trends of duplicate publication in Korean Medical journals



The purpose of this study was to examine trends in duplicate publication in Korean medical articles indexed in the Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System(OASIS).


We searched the list of papers published in Korean medical journals by using OASIS. We randomly extracted 10% of total articles (n=1,162). We searched using OASIS by entering keywords from the title and names of the first and last authors of each indexed article. After the librarian selected the candidates of duplicate publication, three authors reviewed the full texts of the articles independently. When their opinions were not in agreement, reconciliation was made by discussion. The patterns of duplicate publication, such as copy, salami slicing (fragmentation), and aggregation (imalas), were also determined.


A total of 1162 articles were evaluated, 24 (2.1%) index articles of which were duplicate articles. Among 24 index articles, Two were triple publications and 22 were double publications. The patterns of duplication publication were as follows; (1) copy (n=8, 33.3%); (2) salami (9, 37.5%), (3) imalas (5, 20.8%) (4) others (2, 8.3%).


Duplicate publications have appeared in Korean medical journals in a small proportion. Education on publication ethics and authors’ethical awareness is needed.

Fig. 1
Flow chart for evaluation of duplicate publications
Table 1
Criteria of Duplicate Publication and Acceptable Secondary Publication
Criteria of duplicate publication Criteria of acceptable secondary publication
The hypothesis is similar The authors have received approval from the editors of both journals
The numbers or sample sizes are similar The priority of the primary publication is respected by a publication interval of at least one week
The methodology is identical or nearly so The paper for secondary publication is intended for a different group of readers
The results are similar The secondary version faithfully reflects the data and interpretations of the primary version
At least one author is common to both reports There is a footnote and title on the title page of the secondary version
No or little new information is made available
Table 2
Patterns of Duplicate Publication
1. Copy(복사) Complete copy with different language (언어가 다른 완벽한 복사)
Complete copy with same language (언어가 같은 복사)
Copy with some modification with different language (다른 언어로 일부 수정한 복사)
Copy with some modification with same language (같은 언어로 일부 수정한 복사)
2. Salami(분절출판) Salmi with divided sample number (대상을 분할한 분절 출판)
Salami with different hypothesis (가설이 다른 분절출판)
3. Imalas (덧붙이기 출판) Imalas publication with extended sample number or extended study periods (대상 또는 관찰 기간을 늘인 덧붙이기출판)
Imalas publication with added hypothesis (가설 추가한 덧붙이기)
Imalas publication with extended sample number or extended study periods, and added hypothesis (대상, 관찰기간 및 가설 추가한 덧붙이기)
4. Others(기타) Reverse imalas (거꾸로 덧붙이기)
Not classified as above (기타 분류)
Table 3
The General Characteristics of Articles Included
Journals Durations (year) N N (10%)
1 경락경혈학회지 2003~2016 645 64.5
2 동의생리병리학회지 2000~2016 2839 283.9
3 대한본초학회지 2002~2016 1075 107.5
4 대한약침학회지 2015~2016 58 5.8
5 대한예방한의학회지 2007~2016 325 32.5
6 대한침구의학회지 1999~2016 1812 181.2
7 대한한방내과학회지 2015~2016 97 9.7
8 대한한방부인과학회지 2002~2016 988 98.8
9 대한한방소아과학회지 2005~2015 402 40.2
10 동의신경정신과학회지 2004~2016 591 59.1
11 한방안이비인후피부과학회지 2005~2016 639 63.9
12 대한한의학 방제학회지 2006~2016 325 32.5
13 대한한의학원전학회지 2005~2016 718 71.8
14 Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies 2009~2016 340 34
15 사상체질의학회지 2015~2016 45 4.5
16 한방비만학회지 2014~2015 29 2.9
17 한방재활의학과학회지 2005~2016 695 69.5

Total 11,623 1,162

* 한국연구재단에서 2016 년 1 월 1 1일자로 선정된 등재학술지와 등재후보학술지를 대상으로 함

Table 4
Patterns of Duplicate Publication in Korean Medical Journals
Patterns of duplicate No.(%) of articles
Copy 8 (33.3)
Salami 9 (37.5)
Imalas 5 (20.8)
Other 2 (8.3)
Total 24 (100.0)
Table 5
Frequency of Duplicate Publications in Korean Medical Journals
Frequency No.(%) of articles
Double 22 (91.7)
Triple 2 (8.3)
Total 24 (100.0)
Table 6
Directional Patterns of the Primary to Duplicate Publication in Korean Medical Journals
Directions No.(%) of articles
Local↔local 24 (100.0)
Local↔international 0 (0.0)
Total 24 (100.0)
Table 7
The Results of Duplicate Publication Patterns
N (%)
1. Copy(복사) Complete copy with different language 0 (0.0)
Complete copy with same language 8 (33.3)
Copy with some modification with different language 0 (0.0)
Copy with some modification with same language 0 (0.0)

2. Salami(분절출판) Salami with divided sample number 2 (8.3)
Salami with different hypothesis 7 (29.2)

3. Imalas (덧붙이기 출판)) Imalas publication with extended sample number or extended study periods 5 (20.8)
Imalas publication with added hypothesis 0 (0.0)
Imalas publication with extended sample number or extended study periods, and added hypothesis 0 (0.0)

4. Others(기타) Reverse imalas 1 (4.2)
Not classified as above 1 (4.2)


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