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JKM > Volume 36(3); 2015 > Article
Kim, Park, and Yim: The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance Measured at Twelve Source Points: A Cross-Over Study

Abstract

Objectives:

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of smoking on the skin bio-electrical capacitance at twelve source points.

Methods:

Twenty healthy male subjects were assigned to smoking and sham-smoking by a random cross-over design. Skin bio-electrical capacitance was measured at twelve source points for 10 minutes before and after smoking. The change of skin bio-electrical capacitance was analysed.

Results:

1. The skin bio-electrical capacitance at LU9, PC7 and LR3 was significantly increased after smoking. 2. In the smoking group, the skin bio-electrical capacitance at the source points of Hand Yin meridians significantly increased compared to that of Foot Yin and Hand Yang meridians.

Conclusions:

Smoking significantly increased the skin bio-electrical capacitance at the source points of Lung, Pericardium and Liver meridians. Hand Yin meridians appear to be more vulnerable to smoking than other meridians.

Fig. 1.
Bio-electrical capacitance measurement system
jkm-36-3-35f1.tif
Fig. 2.
Experimental protocol
jkm-36-3-35f2.tif
Fig. 3.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at LU9
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left LU9 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
*: P < 0.05 vs Sham-Smoking by Mann-Whitney U test
jkm-36-3-35f3.tif
Fig. 4.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at LI4
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left LI4 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f4.tif
Fig. 5.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at ST42
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left ST42 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f5.tif
Fig. 6.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at SP3
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left SP3 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f6.tif
Fig. 7.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at HT7
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left HT7 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f7.tif
Fig. 8.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at SI4
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left SI4 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f8.tif
Fig. 9.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at BL64
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left BL64 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f9.tif
Fig. 10.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at KI3
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left KI3 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f10.tif
Fig. 11.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at PC7
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left PC7 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
*: P < 0.05 vs Sham-Smoking by Mann-Whitney U test
jkm-36-3-35f11.tif
Fig. 12.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at TE4
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left TE4 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f12.tif
Fig. 13.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at GB40
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left GB40 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
jkm-36-3-35f13.tif
Fig. 14.
The Effects of Smoking on Bioelectrical Capacitance at LR3
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at left LR3 and the change of bioelectrical capacitance at each time point was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean (n=20).
*: P < 0.05 vs Sham-Smoking by Mann-Whitney U test
jkm-36-3-35f14.tif
Fig. 15.
Comparison of Bio-potential Change between Hand and Foot, Yin and Yang Source Points of Smoking group
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at twelve source points and the change of bioelectrical capacitance of smoking group was compared between hand & foot, Yin & Yang source points.
jkm-36-3-35f15.tif
Fig. 16.
Comparison of Bio-potential Change between Hand and Foot, Yin and Yang Source Points of Sham-smoking group
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at twelve source points and the change of bioelectrical capacitance of sham-smoking group was compared between hand & foot, Yin & Yang source points.
jkm-36-3-35f16.tif
Fig. 17.
Bio-potential Change of Hand and Foot, Yin and Yang Source Points of Smoking and Sham-smoking groups
Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at twelve source points in the smoking and the sham-smoking groups. The changes of bioelectrical capacitance of source points with same Yin & Yang property and hand & foot location, showed similar patterns.
jkm-36-3-35f17.tif
Table 1.
Characteristics of Subjects
Mean ± SD
Age(year) 23.65 ± 3.72
Height(cm) 174.68 ± 5.86
Weight(kg) 71.19 ± 7.55
BMI(kg/m2) 23.35 ± 2.57
Body Temperature(°C) 36.28 ± 0.62
Systolic Blood Pressure(mmHg) 128.78 ± 13.77
Diastolic Blood Pressure(mmHg) 77.22 ± 10.33
Time after urination(h) 1.35 ± 1.78
Table 2.
Comparison of Bio-potential Change between the Smoking and the Sham-Smoking groups at Twelve Source Points
Source Point P value (Smoking vs Sham-Smoking)
LU9 0.034*
LI4 0.351
ST42 0.053
SP3 0.577
HT7 0.182
SI4 0.409
BL64 0.231
KI3 0.122
PC7 0.043*
TE4 0.532
GB40 0.082
LR3 0.025*

Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at twelve source points and the change of bioelectrical capacitance was compared between the smoking group and the sham-smoking group.

*: P < 0.05 by Repeated measures ANOVA

Table 3.
Comparison of Bio-potential Change between Hand and Foot, Yin and Yang Source Points
Source Points P value

Smoking group Sham-smoking group
Hand Yang vs Hand Yin 0.020* 0.733
Foot Yang 0.369 0.846
Foot Yin 0.758 0.574

Hand Yin vs Hand Yang 0.020* 0.733
Foot Yang 0.153 0.593
Foot Yin 0.044* 0.367

Foot Yang vs Hand Yang 0.369 0.846
Hand Yin 0.153 0.593
Foot Yin 0.555 0.713

Foot Yin vs Hand Yang 0.758 0.574
Hand Yin 0.044* 0.367
Foot Yang 0.555 0.713

Bioelectrical capacitance was measured at twelve source points and the change of bioelectrical capacitance was compared between hand & foot, Yin & Yang source points.

*: P < 0.05 by Repeated measures ANOVA

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