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JKM > Volume 35(3); 2014 > Article
Jeong, Kim, Kim, Park, and Park: Exploratory Structural Analysis on Eight Positions for New Formulations in Jingyuequanshu by Network Analysis



Eight positions for new formulations in Jingyuequanshu is a unique classifying system and each position can be presented as a network. Network analysis is an effective method of visualizing the relationship of textual information.


This study aimed to analyze the structure of the eight positions for new formulations in Jingyuequanshu, and to acquire information about composing materia medica.


We constructed an initial database and binary matrix of eight positions for new formulation in Jingyuequanshu, including its herbs and formulations. With this data, we carried out frequency and network analysis.


We analyzed each of the eight positions for new formulation, entire positions, and five positions after removing ‘causal/cold/hot’ positions. We found that the formulas of the causal position are distributed throughout the new formulation, and those of the cold and hot positions are also distributed similarly but the two groups are exclusive to each other. The other 5 positions are distributed exclusively to one another.


Eight positions for new formulation of Jingyuequanshu were classified into three axes by exploratory network analysis. One is an axis of causal position, another is an axis of cold/hot positions, and the last is an axis of the other five positions.

Fig. 1.
Initial data structure of eight positions of new formulation in Jingyuequanshu
Fig. 2.
Binary matrix of formulation and herbs
Fig. 3.
Network analysis of the entire formula
Fig. 4.
Network analysis of seven positions after removing ‘causal position’
Fig. 5.
Network analysis of five positions after removing ‘causal, cold, and hot positions’
Fig. 6.
Network analysis of the each combination of the five positions
Fig. 7.
Network analysis of cold position and hot position
Table 1.
Network and Frequency Analysis of Each Position
Position # of formula Network Main Herbs Frequency of herbs Ratio (%)
Tonifying (補陣) 29 jkm-35-3-49i1.tif Rehmanniae Radix Preparat(숙지황) 22 75.9
Angelicae Gigantis Radix(당귀) 14 48.3
Lycii Fructus(구기자) 12 41.4
Dioscoreae Rhizoma(산약) 11 37.9
Ginseng Radix(인삼) 10 34.5

Harmonizing (和陣) 20 jkm-35-3-49i2.tif Citri Pericarpium(진피) 14 70.0
Poria(백복령) 10 50.0
Magnoliae Cortex(후박) 9 45.0
Alismatis Rhizoma(택사) 8 40.0
Pinelliae Rhizoma(반하) 6 30.0

Attacking (攻陣) 5 jkm-35-3-49i3.tif Aucklandiae Raidx(목향) 3 60.0
Gleditsiae Spina(조각자)
Calomelas(경분) 2 40.0
Linderae Radix(오약)
Caryophylli Flos(정향)
Citri Pericarpium(진피)
Alismatis Rhizoma(택사)
Crotonis Fructus(파두)

Dispersing (散陣) 17 jkm-35-3-49i4.tif Bupleuri Radix(시호) 13 76.5
Angelicae Gigantis Radix(당귀) 7 41.2
Citri Pericarpium(진피)
Zingiberis Rhizoma(생강) 5 29.4

Cold (寒陣) 20 jkm-35-3-49i5.tif Alismatis Rhizoma(택사) 8 40.0
Paeoniae Radix Alba(백작약) 7 35.0
Scutellariae Radix(황금)
Akebiae Caulis(목통)
Rehmanniae Radix(생지황) 6 30.0

Heat (熱陣) 25 jkm-35-3-49i6.tif Zingiberis Rhizoma(건강) 19 76.0
Ginseng Radix(인삼) 12 48.0
Poria(백복령) 8 32.0
Aconiti Lateralis Preparata
Angelicae Gigantis Radix(당귀) 7 28.0
Atractylodis Rhizoma White(백출)
Rehmanniae Radix Preparat(숙지황)

Securing (固陣) 10 jkm-35-3-49i7.tif Schizandrae Fructus(오미자) 6 60.0
Poria(백복령) 5 50.0
Atractylodis Rhizoma White(백출)
Dioscoreae Rhizoma(산약)
Cuscutae Semen(토사자)
Polygalae Radix(원지) 3 30.0
Ginseng Radix(인삼)

Causal (因陣) 60 jkm-35-3-49i8.tif Angelicae Gigantis Radix(당귀) 26 43.3
Paeoniae Radix Alba(백작약) 17 28.3
Rehmanniae Radix Preparat(숙지황) 14 23.3
Cnidii Rhizoma(천궁) 9 15.0
Cinnamomi Cortex(육계) 8 13.3
Table 2.
Frequency Analysis of the Entire Formulas
# of formula Main Herbs Frequency Ratio(%)
186 Angelicae Gigantis Radix(당귀) 57 30.6
Rehmanniae Radix Preparat(숙지황) 51 27.4
Citri Pericarpium(진피) 42 22.6
Poria(백복령) 41 22.0
Paeoniae Radix Alba(백작약) 39 21.0
Ginseng Radix(인삼) 33 17.7
Atractylodis Rhizoma White(백출) 31 16.7
Zingiberis Rhizoma(건강) 29 15.6
Alismatis Rhizoma(택사) 27 14.5
Dioscoreae Rhizoma(산약) 23 12.4


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