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JKM > Volume 42(3); 2021 > Article
Lee, Lee, Lee, and Roh: A Retrospective Study of Traffic Accident Inpatients in a Korean Medicine Hospital: Correlation of STAI-I, STAI-II, BDI, and CSEI-s scores with Pain Improvement

Abstract

Objectives

The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of the scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I (STAI-I), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-II (STAI-II), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), and Core Seven Emotions Inventory-short form (CSEI-s) scales with pain improvement.

Methods

We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 66 traffic accident inpatients who satisfy the selection criteria. They had received Korean medical treatment including acupuncture, electroacupuncture, pharmacopuncture, herbal medicine, and Chuna during hospitalization. STAI-II, BDI, and CSEI-s scores on hospital day 1, and STAI-I and numerical rating scale(NRS) scores on hospital day 1, 4, 7, and 10 were used for analysis. Pain improvement was evaluated by difference in NRS scores between hospital day 1 and hospital day 4, 7, 10.

Results

The STAI-I, BDI, and CSEI-s scores showed significant correlations with pain or pain improvement.

Conclusions

This study may be used in the research on psychological state and pain management of traffic accident patients and for patient education. Large-scale, well-designed studies need to be conducted in future to strengthen the results in this regard.

Fig. 1
Patient recruitment flow chart
jkm-42-3-72f1.gif
Table 1
General characteristics
Characteristics N(%)
Sex Female 27(40.9)
Male 39(59.1)

Age 10–19 4(6.1)
20–29 16(24.2)
30–39 12(18.2)
40–49 11(16.7)
50–59 14(21.2)
60- 9(13.6)

The time between injury date and hospitalization 1–7 days 57(86.4)
8–14 days 7(10.6)
Over 14 days 2(3.0)

Symptom Neck pain 58(87.9)
Low back pain 52(78.8)
Neck pain and Low back pain 44(66.7)

Duration of hospitalization 1–7 days 31(47.0)
8–14 days 28(42.4)
Over 14 days 7(10.6)
Table 2
STAI-I, STAI-II, BDI, and CSEI-s scores on hospital day 1
N Mean± SD Median (IQR)
STAI-I 66 48.69±10.36
STAI-II 65 46.50(23)
BDI 58 10.50(15)

CSEI-s Joy(喜) 62 10.75±3.28
Anger(怒) 62 7.00(7)
Depression(憂) 62 8.00(3)
Thought(思) 62 6.50(7)
Sorrow (悲) 62 7.50(4)
Fear(恐) 62 6.00(4)
Fright(驚) 62 5.50(6)

STAI-I : State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I, State Anxiety Inventory

STAI-II: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-II, Trait Anxiety Inventory

BDI: Beck Depression Inventory

CSEI-s : The Core Seven Emotions Inventory-short form

Hospital day 1 : the day of hospital arrival

SD : Standard Deviation, IQR : Interquartile Range

Table 3
NRS scores on hospital day 1
N Mean± SD Median(IQR)
NNRS1 58 5.00(2)
LNRS1 52 5.26±2.07

NRS : Numerical Rating Scale

Hospital day 1 : the day of hospital arrival

SD : Standard Deviation, IQR : Interquartile Range

NNRS1 : Neck pain NRS on hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival)

LNRS1 : Low back pain NRS on hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival)

Table 4
The Pearson and Spearman Correlation between STAI-I, STAI-II, BDI, and CSEI-s scores on hospital day 1
STAI-I STAI-II BDI Joy (喜) Anger (怒) Depression (憂) Thought (思) Sorrow (悲) Fear (恐) Fright (驚)
STAI-I r 1 .359** .534** −.221 .331** .326** .208 .339** .215 .261*
p .003 .000 .085 .009 .010 .105 .007 .093 .041
N 66 65 58 62 62 62 62 62 62 62

STAI-II r 1 .691** -.382** .583** .659** .514** .708** .599** .624**
p .000 .002 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 65 58 62 62 62 62 62 62 62

BDI r 1 −.192 .597** .478** .409** .615** .469** .571**
p .148 .000 .000 .001 .000 .000 .000
N 58 58 58 58 58 58 58 58

Joy (喜) r 1 −.168 −.069 −.126 −.090 −.155 −.063
p .191 .593 .328 .487 .228 .628
N 62 62 62 62 62 62 62

Anger (怒) r 1 .609** .340** .660** .367** .362**
p .000 .007 .000 .003 .004
N 62 62 62 62 62 62

Depression (憂) r 1 .244 .664** .506** .456**
p .056 .000 .000 .000
N 62 62 62 62 62

Thought (思) r 1 .355** .320* .329**
p .005 .011 .009
N 62 62 62 62

Sorrow (悲) r 1 .546** .624**
p .000 .000
N 62 62 62

Fear (恐) r 1 .673**
p .000
N 62 62

Fright (驚) r 1
p
N 62

STAI-I : State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I, State Anxiety Inventory

STAI-II: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-II, Trait Anxiety Inventory

BDI: Beck Depression Inventory

CSEI-s : The Core Seven Emotions Inventory-short form

Hospital day 1 : the day of hospital arrival

* p<0.05,

** p<0.01,

r : correlation coefficient, p : p-value

Table 6
The Pearson and Spearman Correlation between STAI-I, STAI-II, BDI, and CSEI-s scores on hospital day 1 and changes in NRS scores
STAI-I STAI-II BDI Joy (喜) Anger (怒) Depression (憂) Thought (思) Sorrow (悲) Fear (恐) Fright (驚)
NNRS4Diff r −.095 .119 .052 .140 .098 .130 .124 .185 .107 .207
p .477 .378 .714 .307 .476 .346 .367 .177 .435 .129
N 58 57 52 55 55 55 55 55 55 55

NNRS7Diff r −.395* .193 .153 −.052 .029 .075 .078 .131 .274 .206
p .012 .239 .381 .760 .863 .660 .645 .441 .101 .221
N 40 39 35 37 37 37 37 37 37 37

NNRS10Diff r −.458* .268 .342 −.413 .152 .071 −.071 .087 .168 .043
p .042 .267 .152 .079 .534 .773 .772 .723 .492 .862
N 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

LNRS4Diff r −.048 .051 .126 −.076 .051 .071 −.236 .197 .276 .043
p .737 .722 .402 .680 .729 .631 .106 .180 .058 .773
N 52 51 46 48 48 48 48 48 48 48

LNRS7Diff r −.289 −.022 −.187 −.076 .067 −.269 .135 −.106 −.055 −.182
p .092 .902 .314 .680 .714 .137 .462 .564 .766 .320
N 35 34 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32

LNRS10Diff r −.023 .251 .140 .107 .185 .183 .529* .195 .333 .139
p .931 .349 .605 .694 .493 .498 .035 .470 .208 .607
N 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

STAI-I : State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I, State Anxiety Inventory

STAI-II: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-II, Trait Anxiety Inventory

BDI: Beck Depression Inventory

CSEI-s : The Core Seven Emotions Inventory-short form

Hospital day 1 : the day of hospital arrival

NRS : Numerical Rating Scale

NNRS4Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

NNRS7Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

NNRS10Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS4Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS7Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS10Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

* p < 0.05,

** p < 0.01,

r : correlation coefficient, p : p-value

Table 7
The Pearson and Spearman Correlation between STAI-I scores on hospital day 4, 7, and 10 and changes in NRS scores
NNRS4Diff NNRS7Diff NNRS10Diff LNRS4Diff LNRS7Diff LNRS10Diff
STAI-I(4) r .173 −.284 −.384 −.380* −.348 −.137
p .293 .143 .142 .022 .082 .627
N 39 28 16 36 26 15

STAI-I(7) r −.115 −.270 −.112 −.055
p N/A .631 .351 N/A .692 .865
N 20 14 15 12

STAI-I(10) r .107 .082
p N/A N/A .784 N/A N/A .834
N 9 9

STAI-I : State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I, State Anxiety Inventory

Hospital day 4, 7, and 10 : 3, 6, 9 days after hospital arrival, respectively

NRS : Numerical Rating Scale

NNRS4Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

NNRS7Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

NNRS10Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS4Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS7Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS10Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

STAI-I(4) : STAI-I of hospital day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

STAI-I(7) : STAI-I of hospital day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

STAI-I(10) : STAI-I of hospital day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

* p<0.05,

** p<0.01,

r : correlation coefficient, p : p-value, N/A : not applicable

Table 8
The Pearson and Spearman Correlation between changes in STAI-I scores and changes in NRS scores
NNRS4Diff NNRS7Diff NNRS10Diff LNRS4Diff LNRS7Diff LNRS10Diff
STAI4Diff r −.029 −.059 −.201 .279 .133 .132
p .859 .764 .456 .099 .517 .639
N 39 28 16 36 26 15
STAI7Diff r −.380 −.173 .100 .084
p N/A .098 .554 N/A .723 .795
N 20 14 15 12
STAI10Diff r −.515 .254
p N/A N.A .156 N/A N/A .509
N 9 9

STAI-I : State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I, State Anxiety Inventory

NRS : Numerical Rating Scale

NNRS4Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

NNRS7Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

NNRS10Diff : Difference in neck pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS4Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS7Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

LNRS10Diff : Difference in low back pain NRS between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

STAI4Diff : Difference in STAI-I between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 4 (3 days after hospital arrival)

STAI7Diff : Difference in STAI-I between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 7 (6 days after hospital arrival)

STAI10Diff : Difference in STAI-I between hospital day 1 (the day of hospital arrival) and day 10 (9 days after hospital arrival)

* p<0.05,

** p<0.01,

r : correlation coefficient, p : p-value, N/A : not applicable

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