Home | Register | Login | Inquiries | Alerts | Sitemap |  


Advanced Search
JKM > Volume 40(1); 2019 > Article
Park, Kim, and Keum: Responses of Autonomic Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function to Acupuncture at Abdominal Anterior Cutaneous Nerve : A Pilot Study

Abstract

Objectives

This study is designed to identify the responses of autonomic nervous system and gastrointestinal function which are induced by acupuncture at abdominal anterior cutaneous nerve.

Methods

This study is one group before and after pilot study. Subjects were treated once, after having been fasting six hours. They had before tests, labeling points for acupuncture, acupuncture, and after tests in order. The points of acupuncture were motor points of rectus abdominis where the abdominal anterior cutaneous nerve came to the skin from abdominal wall. Before and after tests were consisted of three things: Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging(D.I.T.I.), Heart Rate Variability(HRV), and Recording of bowel sounds.

Results

There were significant differences on the skin temperature of upper body and the frequency of bowel sounds(p<0.001, p<0.001). The HRV parameters and volume of bowel sounds had no significant differences(p>0.05, p>0.05).

Conclusion

Even though no significant differences in HRV parameters, the significant differences of skin temperature of upper body and frequency of bowel sounds could mean acupuncture at abdominal anterior cutaneous nerve could affect the autonomic nervous system and gastrointestinal function. However, this study had no group to compare with. Future randomized project should address this issue.

Fig. 1
Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging
jkm-40-1-99f1.gif
Fig. 2
Electrostethoscope
jkm-40-1-99f2.gif
Fig. 3
Point for attaching electrostethoscope
jkm-40-1-99f3.gif
Fig. 4
Analyzing bowel sounds
(a) Visualized bowel sounds and noise
(b) Transformed bowel sounds for analyzing
jkm-40-1-99f4.gif
Fig. 5
Electric probe
jkm-40-1-99f5.gif
Fig. 6
Abdominal Anterior Cutaneous Nerve15)
(a) Nerves of anterior abdominal wall
(b) Thoracoabdominal nerves
jkm-40-1-99f6.gif
Fig. 7
Points for acupuncture.
jkm-40-1-99f7.gif
Fig. 8
Skin temperature changes of anterior and posterior side of upper body
(a) Skin temperature changes of anterior side of upper body
(b) Skin temperature changes of posterior side of upper body
jkm-40-1-99f8.gif
Fig. 9
Changes of Heart Rate Variability
(a) Changes of MHRT
(b) Changes of RMS-SD
(c) Changes of LF
(d) Changes of HR
(e) Changes of LF/HF ratio
jkm-40-1-99f9.gif
Fig. 10
Changes of bowel sounds’ volume and frequency
(a) Changes of volume of bowel sounds
(b) Changes of frequency of bowel sounds
jkm-40-1-99f10.gif
Table 1
General Characteristics of the Subjects
Group Total
n 30
Age 27±3.10
Gender Male n(%) 7(23.0)
Female n(%) 23(77.0)

Values are mean ± S.D.

Table 2
Skin Temperature Changes of Anterior and Posterior Side of Upper Body
Anterior Part (°C) Posterior Part (°C)
Before 31.63 ± 1.17 32.05 ± 1.10
After 32.58 ± 0.90 33.82 ± 0.68
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001

Values are mean ± S.D.

P-values were calculated by Paired T-test

Table 3
Changes of Heart Rate Variability
Before After P-value
MHRT* 64.42 ± 8.93 63.11 ± 8.41 0.221
RMS-SD 40.67 ± 19.85 40.44 ± 17.37 0.929
LF 1417.35 ± 2047.81 1698.06 ± 4261.04 0.877
HF§ 1121.82 ± 1533.49 947.97 ± 1468.19 0.558
LF/HF ratio 1.31 ± 1.11 1.35 ± 0.81 0.344

Values are mean ± S.D.

* MHRT : Mean Heart rate,

† RMS-SD : Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences

‡ LF : Low Frequency Density,

§ HF : High Frequency Density

P-values of MHRT and RMS-SD was calculated by Paired T-test

P-values of LF, HF and LF/HF ratio was calculated by Wilcoxon signed rank test

Table 4
Volume and Frequency of Bowel Sound
Volume (dB) Frequency (Hz)
Before −13.61 ± 2.48 165.32 ± 36.80
After −13.87 ± 1.59 200.38 ± 31.21
P-value 0.611 < 0.001

Values are mean ± S.D.

P-values were calculated by Paired T-test

참고문헌

1 Drossman DA. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: History, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features and Rome IV. Gastroenterology. 2016; 150:6. 1262–79.
crossref

2 Li YQ, Zhu B, Rong PJ, Ben H, Li YH. Neural mechanism of acupuncture-modulated gastric motility. World J gastroenterology. 2007; 13:5. 709–16.
crossref

3 Phillips RJ, Powley TL. Innervation of the gastrointestinal tract: patterns of aging. Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical. 2007; 136:1–2. 1–19.
crossref

4 Kim BJ, Hong JW, Hwang MW, Chae H. Systemic analysis for research strategy establishment of gatrointestinal disease with Oriental medicine in Korea. Korean J Oriental physiology&pathology. 2009; 23:6. 1273–81.


5 Kim BY, Seo BN, Park JE, Yang CS, Kim IT, Lym JW, et al. A systematic review of acupuncture-moxibution treatment for functional dyspepsia. Korean J acupuncture. 2017; 34:1. 8–36.
crossref

6 Kim YS, Yoon SH. Combination Effects of Zusanli (ST36) Electroacupuncture and Manual Acupuncture of other Acupoints on Gastric Vagal Nerve Activity and Pyloric Valve Function in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia. J Korean medicine. 2008; 29:3. 621–8.


7 Ma TT, Yu SY, Li Y, Liang FR, Tian XP, Zheng H, et al. Randomised clinical trial: an assessment of acupuncture on specific meridian or specific acupoint vs. sham acupuncture for treating functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012; 35:5. 552–61.
crossref pmid

8 Noguchi E, Ohsawa H, Tanaka H, Ikeda H, Aikawa Y. Electro-acupuncture stimulation effects on duodenal motility in anesthetized rats. Jpn J Physiol. 2003; 53:1. 1–7.
crossref pmid

9 Sato A, Sato Y, Suzuki A, Uchida S. Neural mechanisms of the reflex inhibition and excitation of gastric motility elicited by acupuncture-like stimulation in anesthetized rats. Neurosci Res. 1993; 18:1. 53–62.
crossref pmid

10 Sato A, Sato Y, Uchida S, editors. Reflex modulation of visceral functions by acupuncture-like stimulation in anesthetized rats. J international congress series. 2002; 1238:111–23.
crossref

11 Yang M, Li X, Liu S, Li Z, Xue M, Gao D, et al. Meta-analysis of acupuncture for relieving non-organic dyspeptic symptoms suggestive of diabetic gastroparesis. BMC complement Alternative Med. 2013; 13:1. 311
crossref

12 Jee SR, Jung HK, Min BH, Choi KD, Rhee PL, Kang YW, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Korean J gastroenterol. 2011; 57:2. 67–81.
crossref pmid

13 Cramer G, Darby S. Basic and Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS. 2nd ed. YangJY. Seoul: Koon Ja;2005. p. 452–4. p. 481–90. p. 512–8.


14 Mol FM, Lataster A, Scheltinga M, Roumen R. Anatomy of abdominal anterior cutaneous intercostal nerves with respect to the pathophysiology of anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES): A case study. Translational research in anatomy. 2017; 8:6–10.
crossref

15 Netter FH. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 4th ed. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences;2017. p. 164p. 167p. 180p. 192p. 257–8.


16 Ching SS, Tan YK. Spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction using an electronic stethoscope. World J gastroenterology. 2012; 18:33. 4585–92.
crossref

17 Srinivasan R, Greenbaum DS. Chronic abdominal wall pain: a frequently overlooked problem. Practical approach to diagnosis and management. Am J gastroenterology. 2002; 97:4. 824–30.


18 Sung JW. Pain’s Principle and Insight. Soeul: Koon Ja;2016. p. 219–54.


19 Ombregt L. A system of orthopaedic medicine. 3rd ed. LeeJCLymHSJungJWJungJHJungJP. Seoul: Han Mi;2015. p. 379–87.


20 Hwang EM, Wang GH, Bae JI, Keum DH. The effect of dry cupping treatment applied to Back-shu points on the autonomic nervous system through HRV. J Korean medicine of rehabilitation. 2013; 23:1. 51–64.


21 Park JK, Huh KC, Shin CM, Lee H, Yoon YH, Song KH, et al. Current issues in functional dyspepsia. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2014; 64:3. 133–41.
crossref pmid

22 Yoon SH. Postprandial epigastric fullness and pyloric valve disturbance in patients with functional dyspepsia-Analysis of bowel sounds and electrogastrography. Korean J Orient Int. 2007; 28:4. 769–78.


23 Yoshino H, Abe Y, Yoshino T, Ohsato K. Clinical application of spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction. Dis Colon Rectum. 1990; 33:9. 753–7.
crossref pmid

24 Gobbo M, Maffiuletti NA, Orizio C, Minetto MA. Muscle motor point identification is essential for optimizing neuromuscular electrical stimulation use. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2014; 11:1. 17
crossref pmid pmc

25 Park JW, Keum DH. Comparison Study about Surface Mapping of Motor Points in Biceps Brachii Muscle Using Surface EMG and Electric Probe. J of Korean medicine of rehabilitation. 2018; 28:1. 85–96.
crossref

26 Applegate WV. Abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES): a commonly overlooked cause of abdominal pain. Sergery. 2002; 6:3. 20


27 Clarke S, Kanakarajan S. Abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Continuing education in anaesthesia, Critical Care, Pain. 2014; 15:2. 60–3.
crossref

28 Scott F, Jane B, James PR. Bonica’s management of pain. Illinois: Lippincott Williams&Wilkins;2010. p. 24–33.


29 Filshie J, White A. Medical acupuncture: a Western scientific approach. 2nd ed.New York: Elsevier Health Sciences;2016. p. 86–8. p. 368–74.


30 Lara FP, Berges AF, Quesada JQ, Ramiro JM, Toledo RB, Muñoz HO. Thoracic disk herniation, a not infrequent cause of chronic abdominal pain. Int Surg. 2012; 97:1. 27–33.
crossref pmid pmc

31 Lyons M, Windgassen E, Kinney C, Johnson D, Birch B, Boucher O. Thoracic meningioma masquerading as chronic abdominal pain. Turk Neurosurg. 2012; 22:3. 365–7.
crossref pmid

32 Treadwell EL, Cunningham PR, Kowalski HM, Weaver MD. Thoracolumbar compression fractures presenting with an acute ileus. J Natl Med Assoc. 1990; 82:9. 669–72.
pmid pmc

33 Kimura K, Masuda K, Wakayama I. Changes in skin blood flow and skin sympathetic nerve activity in response to manual acupuncture stimulation in humans. Am J Chin Med. 2006; 34:2. 189–96.
crossref pmid

34 Liao TJ, Urata S, Nishikawa H. Transient decrease in skin resistance response and level at the deh-chi stage caused by manual acupuncture. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1998; 186:1. 19–25.
crossref pmid

35 Takahashi T. Mechanism of acupuncture on neuromodulation in the gut--a review. Neuromodulation. 2011; 14:1. 8–12. discussion.
crossref pmid

36 Sim WB, Kim JH, Kim JS, Song JS, Kim KS, Sohn IC. Effects of Zusanli (ST36) Acupuncture on Abdominal Thermography of Health Subject. Korean J Meridian Acupunct. 2003; 20:1. 1–20.


37 Lund I, Lundeberg T. Mechanisms of acupuncture. J Acupuncture and related therapies. 2016; 4:4. 26–30.
crossref

38 Tjen ALSC, Fu LW, Zhou W, Syuu Z, Longhurst JC. Role of unmyelinated fibers in electroacupuncture cardiovascular responses. Auton Neurosci. 2005; 118:1–2. 43–50.
crossref

39 Li QQ, Shi GX, Xu Q, Wang J, Liu CZ, Wang LP. Acupuncture effect and central autonomic regulation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Medicine. 2013; 2013:1. 267959.
crossref pmid pmc

40 Pomeranz B, Macaulay RJ, Caudill MA, Kutz I, Adam D, Gordon D, et al. Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis. Am J Physiol. 1985; 248:1 Pt 2. H151–3.
crossref pmid

41 Uchida C, Waki H, Minakawa Y, Tamai H, Hisajima T, Imai K. Evaluation of Autonomic Nervous System Function Using Heart Rate Variability Analysis During Transient Heart Rate Reduction Caused by Acupuncture. Med Acupunct. 2018; 30:2. 89–95.
crossref pmid pmc

42 Kim SY, Han CW, Park SH, Kwon JN, Lee I, Hong JW, et al. Correlation Study between Electrogastrography and Heart Rate Variability in Dyspeptic Patients. Korean J Physiology and pathology. 2012; 26:4. 532–8.
crossref

43 Paulson KL, Shay BL. Sympathetic nervous system responses to acupuncture and non-penetrating sham acupuncture in experimental forearm pain: a single-blind randomised descriptive study. Med. 2013; 31:2. 178–84.
crossref pmid

44 Shu Q, Wang H, Litscher D, Wu S, Chen L, Gaischek I, et al. Acupuncture and Moxibustion have Different Effects on Fatigue by Regulating the Autonomic Nervous System: A Pilot Controlled Clinical Trial. Sci Rep. 2016; 42:4. 37846
crossref

45 Uchida S, Kagitani F, Hotta H. Neural mechanisms of reflex inhibition of heart rate elicited by acupuncture-like stimulation in anesthetized rats. Auton Neurosci. 2010; 157:1–2. 18–23.
crossref pmid

46 Baid H. A critical review of auscultating bowel sounds. Br J Nurs. 2009; 18:18. 1125–9.
crossref pmid

47 Jeong YS, Park H, Choi EJ, Kim YG, Lee SI. Fasting and postprandial analysis of bowel sounds and plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine level. Korean J gastroenterol. 2004; 44:3. 142–6.
pmid

48 Ranta R, Louis-Dorr V, Heinrich C, Wolf D, Guillemin F. Principal component analysis and interpretation of bowel sounds. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004; 1:227–30.
crossref pmid

49 Zaborski D, Halczak M, Grzesiak W, Modrzejewski A. Recording and Analysis of Bowel Sounds. Euroasian J hepatogastroenterol. 2015; 5:2. 67–73.
crossref pmid pmc

50 Craine BL, Silpa M, O’Toole CJ. Computerized auscultation applied to irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 1999; 44:9. 1887–92.
crossref pmid

51 Yoon SH. Postprandial epigastric fullness and pyloric valve disturbance in patients with functional dyspepsia; analysis of bowel sounds and electrogastrography. Korean J Orient Int. 2007; 28:4. 769–78.


52 Hong IA, Yoon SH. A Study of Gastrointestinal Parasympathetic Nerve Activity and Pyloric Valve Function, and Clinical Characteristerics in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia-Analysis of Bowel Sound. Korean J Orient Int. 2008; 29:3. 666–74.


53 Politzer JP, Devroede G, Vasseur C, Gerard J, Thibault R. The genesis of bowel sounds: influence of viscus and gastrointestinal content. Gastroenterol. 1976; 71:2. 282–5.


54 Hur WY, Yoon SH, Park YS, Jung YJ, Kim YS, Hong IA, et al. Change of gastric motility assesed with electrogastrography and phonoenterography after traditional Korean medical treatment in 2 patients with functional dyspepsia. Korean J Orient Int. 2008; 88–101.


55 Haker E, Egekvist H, Bjerring P. Effect of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in healthy subjects. J Auton Nerv Syst. 2000; 79:1. 52–9.
crossref pmid

56 Sugiyama Y, Xue YX, Mano T. Transient increase in human muscle sympathetic nerve activity during manual acupuncture. Jpn J Physiol. 1995; 45:2. 337–45.
crossref pmid

57 Ahn YG. Principles of Meridians and Acupoints. Seoul: Seong Bo;2006. p. 137–9.


58 Leung L. Neurophysiological basis of acupuncture-induced analgesia--an updated review. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012; 5:6. 261–70.
crossref

59 Ygge J. On the organization of the thoracic spinal ganglion and nerve in the rat. Exp Brain Res. 1984; 55:3. 395–401.
crossref pmid

TOOLS
PDF Links  PDF Links
Full text via DOI  Full text via DOI
PubReader  PubReader
Download Citation  Download Citation
  E-Mail
  Print
Share:      
METRICS
0
Crossref
84
View
14
Download
Editorial office contact information
3F, #26-27 Gayang-dong, Gangseo-gu Seoul, 157-200 Seoul, Korea
The Society of Korean Medicine
Tel : +82-2-2658-3614   Fax : +82-2-2658-3631   E-mail : skom1953@daum.net
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
powerd by m2community